#+TITLE: Org Mode - Organize Your Life In Plain Text!
#+AUTHOR: Bernt Hansen
#+OPTIONS:   H:3 num:t   toc:2 \n:nil @:t ::t |:t ^:nil -:t f:t *:t <:t
#+OPTIONS:   TeX:t LaTeX:nil skip:nil d:nil todo:t pri:nil tags:not-in-toc
#+OPTIONS:   author:t creator:nil timestamp:t email:t
#+DESCRIPTION: A description of how I currently use org-mode
#+KEYWORDS:  org-mode Emacs organization GTD getting-things-done git
#+INFOJS_OPT: view:nil toc:t ltoc:t mouse:underline buttons:0 path:
* Overview
Org-mode is a fabulous organizational tool built by Carsten Dominik
that operates on plain text files.  Org-mode is part of Emacs.

This document assumes you've had some exposure to org-mode already so
concepts like the agenda, capture mode, etc.  won't be completely
foreign to you.  More information about org-mode can be found in the
[[][Org-Mode Manual]] and on the [[][Worg Site]].

I have been using org-mode as my personal information manager for
years now.  I started small with just the default =TODO= and =DONE=
keywords.  I added small changes to my workflow and over time it
evolved into what is described by this document.

I still change my workflow and try new things regularly.  This
document describes mature workflows in my current org-mode setup.  I
tend to document changes to my workflow 30 days after implementing
them (assuming they are still around at that point) so that the new
workflow has a chance to mature.

Some of the customized Emacs settings described in this document are
set at their default values.  This explicitly shows the setting for
important org-mode variables used in my workflow and to keep my
workflow behaviour stable in the event that the default value changes
in the future.
* Getting Started
I use =org-mode= in most of my emacs buffers.
** Org-Mode Setup
The following setup in my .emacs enables org-mode for most buffers.
=org-mode= is the default mode for, =.org_archive=, and =.txt=

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;;; Org Mode
  (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "~/git/org-mode/lisp"))
  (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.\\(org\\|org_archive\\|txt\\)$" . org-mode))
  (require 'org-install)
  ;; Standard key bindings
  (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)

=orgstruct++-mode= is enabled in =Gnus= message buffers to aid in
creating structured email messages.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq message-mode-hook
        (quote (orgstruct++-mode
                (lambda nil (setq fill-column 72) (flyspell-mode 1))

=flyspell-mode= is enabled for almost everything to help prevent
creating documents with spelling errors.  =yasnippets= are enabled to
speed up creation of standard text blocks in most editing modes.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Make TAB the yas trigger key in the org-mode-hook and enable flyspell mode and autofill
  (add-hook 'org-mode-hook
            (lambda ()
              ;; yasnippet
              (make-variable-buffer-local 'yas/trigger-key)
              (org-set-local 'yas/trigger-key [tab])
              (define-key yas/keymap [tab] 'yas/next-field-group)
              ;; flyspell mode for spell checking everywhere
              (flyspell-mode 1)
              ;; auto-fill mode on
              (auto-fill-mode 1)))

** Organizing Your Life Into Org Files
Tasks are separated into logical groupings or projects.  
Use separate org files for large task groupings.

Here are sample files that I use.

The following org files collect non-work related tasks:

| Filename     | Description                                |
|     | Personal tasks and things to keep track of |
| | Google Summer of Code stuff for 2009       |
|     | Farm related tasks                         |
|     | Tasks related to my son Mark               |
|      | Org-mode related tasks                     |
|      | Git related tasks                          |
|   | BZFlag related tasks                       |

The following org-file collects org capture notes and tasks:

| Filename   | Description         |
| | Capture task bucket |

The following work-related org-files keep my business notes (using
fictitious client names)

| Filename    | Description                             |
|  | Norang tasks and notes                  |
|     | XYZ Corp tasks and notes                |
|     | ABC Ltd tasks                           |
| | ABC Ltd tasks for their client DEF Corp |
| | ABC Ltd tasks for their client KKK Inc  |
|     | YYY Inc tasks                           |

Org-mode is great for dealing with multiple clients and client
projects.  An org file becomes the collection of projects, notes,
etc. for a single client or client-project.

Clients (ABC Ltd) has multiple customer systems that I work on.
Separating the tasks for each client-customer into separate org files
helps keep things logically grouped and since clients come and go this
allows entire org files to be added or dropped from my agenda to keep
only what is important visible in agenda views.

Other org files are used for publishing only and do not contribute to the agenda.
See [[Publishing]] for more details.

** Agenda Setup
Here is my current =org-agenda-files= setup.  It is shown above
formatted as a =setq= for clarity but in reality this is saved in my
custom.el file.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-agenda-files (quote ("~/git/org/"
                                 ; client org files removed

=org-mode= manages the =org-agenda-files= variable.  I just visit an
org file and add it to the agenda with =C-c [=.  To remove a file I
just visit it and hit =C-c ]= and all of the tasks in that file are
instantly removed from my agenda views until I add them back again.
** Org File Structure
:CUSTOM_ID: OrgFileStructure
Most of my org files are set up with level 1 headings as main
categories only.  Tasks normally start as level 2.

Here are some examples of my level 1 headings in

- Appointments
- Special Dates

  Includes level 2 headings for

  - Birthdays
  - Anniversaries
  - Holidays

- Finances
- Health
- House Maintenance
- Medical
- Miscellaneous
- Lawn and Garden

- System Maintenance
- Payroll
- Accounting
- Finances
- Hardware Maintenance
- Quotes
- Administration
- Research

Each of these level 1 tasks normally has a =property drawer=
specifying the archive location and category for any tasks in that
tree.  Level 1 headings are set up like this:

: * Appointments
:   :CATEGORY: Appt
:   :ARCHIVE:  %s_archive::* Appointments
:   :END:      
:   ...
: * Miscellaneous
:   :CATEGORY: todo
:   :ARCHIVE: %s_archive::* Miscellaneous
:   :END:

This ensures that any level 2 task that I archive from this heading
(I archive by subtree) gets saved in the archive file under the
appropriate level 1 heading so I can find it back again if needed.

This keeps my main org files and my archives with basically the
same structure.

** Key bindings
:CUSTOM_ID: KeyBindings
I live in the agenda.  To make getting to the agenda faster I mapped
=F12= to the sequence =C-c a= since I'm using it hundreds of times a

I have the following custom key bindings set up for my emacs (sorted by frequency).

| Key     | For                                             | Used       |
| F12     | Agenda (1 key less than C-c a)                  | Very Often |
| C-c b   | Switch to org file                              | Very Often |
| C-F11   | Clock in a task (show menu with prefix)         | Very Often |
| f9 g    | Gnus - I live in gnus                           | Often      |
| C-M-r   | Capture a task                                  | Often      |
| F11     | Goto currently clocked item                     | Often      |
| f5      | Show todo items for this subtree                | Often      |
| S-f5    | Widen                                           | Often      |
| f9 b    | Quick access to bbdb data                       | Often      |
| f9 c    | Calendar access                                 | Often      |
| f9 r    | Boxquote selected region                        | Often      |
| C-S-f12 | Save buffers and publish current project        | Often      |
| C-c l   | Store a link for retrieval with C-c C-l         | Often      |
| f8      | Go to next org file in org-agenda-files         | Sometimes  |
| f9 t    | Insert inactive timestamp                       | Sometimes  |
| f9 v    | Toggle visible mode (for showing/editing links) | Sometimes  |
| C-f9    | Previous buffer                                 | Sometimes  |
| C-f10   | Next buffer                                     | Sometimes  |
| C-x n r | Narrow to region                                | Sometimes  |
| f9 f    | Boxquote insert a file                          | Sometimes  |
| f9 i    | Org-mode Info manual                            | Sometimes  |
| f9 I    | Punch Clock In  (start clocking)                | Sometimes  |
| f9 O    | Punch Clock Out (stop clocking)                 | Sometimes  |
| f9 s    | Switch to scratch buffer                        | Sometimes  |
| M-f9    | Remove unmodified buffer and frame              | Sometimes  |
| f9 h    | Hide other tasks                                | Rare       |
| f7      | Toggle line truncation/wrap                     | Rare       |
| f9 u    | Untabify region                                 | Rare       |
| C-c a   | Enter Agenda (minimal emacs testing)            | Rare       |
| M-f11   | Resolve open clocks                             | Rare       |
Here is the keybinding setup in lisp:
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Custom Key Bindings
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f12>") 'org-agenda)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f5>") 'bh/org-todo)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<S-f5>") 'bh/widen)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f7>") 'set-truncate-lines)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f8>") 'org-cycle-agenda-files)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> b") 'bbdb)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> c") 'calendar)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> f") 'boxquote-insert-file)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> g") 'gnus)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> h") 'bh/hide-other)
  (defun bh/hide-other ()
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> i") 'bh/org-info)
  (defun bh/org-info ()
    (info "~/git/org-mode/doc/"))
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> I") 'bh/clock-in)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> O") 'bh/clock-out)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> r") 'boxquote-region)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> s") 'bh/go-to-scratch)
  (defun bh/go-to-scratch ()
    (switch-to-buffer "*scratch*")
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> t") 'bh/insert-inactive-timestamp)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> u") 'bh/untabify)
  (defun bh/untabify ()
    (untabify (point-min) (point-max)))
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> v") 'visible-mode)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> SPC") 'bh/clock-in-last-task)
  (global-set-key (kbd "C-<f9>") 'previous-buffer)
  (global-set-key (kbd "C-x n r") 'narrow-to-region)
  (global-set-key (kbd "C-<f10>") 'next-buffer)
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f11>") 'org-clock-goto)
  (global-set-key (kbd "C-<f11>") 'org-clock-in)
  (global-set-key (kbd "C-s-<f12>") 'bh/save-then-publish)
  (global-set-key (kbd "M-<f11>") 'org-resolve-clocks)
  (global-set-key (kbd "C-M-r") 'org-capture)
  (global-set-key (kbd "M-<f9>") (lambda ()
                                   (unless (buffer-modified-p)
                                     (kill-buffer (current-buffer)))

The main reason I have special key bindings (like =F11=, and =F12=) is
so that the keys work in any mode.  If I'm in the Gnus summary buffer
then =C-u C-c C-x C-i= doesn't work, but the =C-F11= key combination
does and this saves me time since I don't have to visit an org-mode
buffer first just to clock in a recent task.

* Tasks and States
I use one set of TODO keywords for all of my org files.  Org-mode lets
you define TODO keywords per file but I find it's easier to have a
standard set of TODO keywords globally so I can use the same setup in
any org file I'm working with.

The only exception to this is this document :) since I don't want
=org-mode= hiding the =TODO= keyword when it appears in headlines.
I've set up a dummy =#+SEQ_TODO: FIXME FIXED= entry at the top of this
file just to leave my =TODO= keyword untouched in this document.
** TODO keywords
Here are my =TODO= state keywords and colour settings:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-todo-keywords (quote ((sequence "TODO(t)" "NEXT(n)" "|" "DONE(d!/!)")
   (sequence "WAITING(w@/!)" "SOMEDAY(s!)" "|" "CANCELLED(c@/!)")
   (sequence "QUOTE(q!)" "QUOTED(Q!)" "|" "APPROVED(A@)" "EXPIRED(E@)" "REJECTED(R@)")
   (sequence "OPEN(O)" "|" "CLOSED(C)"))))
  (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
        (quote (("TODO"      :foreground "red"          :weight bold)
                ("NEXT"      :foreground "blue"         :weight bold)
                ("DONE"      :foreground "forest green" :weight bold)
                ("WAITING"   :foreground "yellow"       :weight bold)
                ("SOMEDAY"   :foreground "goldenrod"    :weight bold)
                ("CANCELLED" :foreground "orangered"    :weight bold)
                ("QUOTE"     :foreground "hotpink"      :weight bold)
                ("QUOTED"    :foreground "indianred1"   :weight bold)
                ("APPROVED"  :foreground "forest green" :weight bold)
                ("EXPIRED"   :foreground "olivedrab1"   :weight bold)
                ("REJECTED"  :foreground "olivedrab"    :weight bold)
                ("OPEN"      :foreground "magenta"      :weight bold)
                ("CLOSED"    :foreground "forest green" :weight bold))))

*** Normal Task States
Normal tasks go through the sequence =TODO= -> =NEXT= -> =DONE=.

The following diagram shows the possible state transitions for a task.

#+begin_src ditaa :file task_states.png :cmdline -r -s 0.8
     +--------+       +---------+       +--------+
     |        |       |         |       |        |
  +--+  TODO  +------>+  NEXT   +------>+  DONE  |
  |  | cRED   |       |  cBLU   |       | cGRE   |
  |  +--+-+---+       +--+---+--+       +--------+
  |     ^ ^              ^   |
  |     | |              |   |
  |     | :  +------=----+   +------=------+
  |     : +--|----=-------+                |
  |     |    |            |                |
  |     v    v            v                v
  |  +--+----+-+     +----+----+     +-----+-----+
  |  |         |     |         |     |           |
  |  | WAITING |     | SOMEDAY |     | CANCELLED |
  |  |   cF60  |     |  cC0C   |     |   cGRE    |
  |  +----+----+     +---+--+--+     +-----+--+--+
  |       ^              ^  |              ^  ^
  |       |              |  |              |  |
  |       +--=-----------+  +-=------------+  |
  |                                           |
       -------- Normal state changes
       ----=--- Optional state changes


*** Quotation Task States
I also do fixed-price quotation work.  Quotations use the following state transitions:

#+begin_src ditaa :file quote_states.png :cmdline -r -s 0.8
                                             |          |
                                         +-->+ EXPIRED  |
                                         |   | cGRE     |
                                         |   +----------+
      +-------------+       +--------+   :   +----------+
      |             |       |        +---+   |          |
      |    QUOTE    +------>+ QUOTED +------>+ APPROVED |
      | cRED        |       |  cC0C  +---+   | cGRE     |
      +-------------+       +--+---+-+   :   +----------+
                                         |   +----------+
                                         |   |          |
                                         +-->+ REJECTED |
                                             | cGRE     |


*** Purchase Order Task States
Fixed price jobs normally have a =Purchase Order= associated with it which is used for billing the client.
The following states track purchase orders.

#+begin_src ditaa :file po_states.png :cmdline -r -s 0.8
      +----------+       +---------+
      |          |       |         |
      |   OPEN   +------>+  CLOSED |
      | cRED     |       |  cGRE   |
      +----------+       +---------+


*** Project Task States
I use a lazy project definition.  I don't like to bother with manually
stating 'this is a project' and 'that is not a project'.  For me a project
definition is really simple.  If a task has subtasks with a todo keyword
then it's a project.  That's it.  I generally define tasks at level 2 so most
of my 'projects' live at heading level 2 under some level 1 category task.
The only exception to this is refile tasks which live at level 1 since there
is no heading category task at level 1 in

I don't want to see hundreds of tasks when I look for the next task to work on.
My =NEXT= task list now only shows project related tasks and keeps me focused on 
more important work.

** Fast Todo Selection
Fast todo selection allows changing from any task todo state to any
other state directly by selecting the appropriate key from the fast
todo selection key menu.  This is a great feature!

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes 
  (setq org-use-fast-todo-selection t)

Changing a task state is done with 
: C-c C-t KEY

where =KEY= is the appropriate fast todo state selection key as defined in =org-todo-keywords=.

The setting
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change nil)
allows changing todo states with S-left and S-right skipping all of
the normal processing when entering or leaving a todo state.  This
cycles through the todo states but skips setting timestamps and
entering notes which is very convenient when all you want to do is fix
up the status of an entry.
** ToDo state triggers
I have a few triggers that automatically assign tags to tasks based on
state changes.  If a task moves to =CANCELLED= state then it gets a
=CANCELLED= tag.  Moving a =CANCELLED= task back to =TODO= removes the
=CANCELLED= tag.  These are used for filtering tasks in agenda views
which I'll talk about later.

The triggers break down to the following rules:

- Moving a task to =CANCELLED= adds a =CANCELLED= tag
- Moving a task to =WAITING= adds a =WAITING= tag
- Moving a task to =SOMEDAY= adds a =WAITING= tag
- Moving a task to a done state removes a =WAITING= tag
- Moving a task to =TODO= removes =WAITING= and =CANCELLED= tags
- Moving a task to =NEXT= removes a =WAITING= tag
- Moving a task to =DONE= removes =WAITING= and =CANCELLED= tags

The tags are used to filter tasks in the agenda views conveniently.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes 
  (setq org-todo-state-tags-triggers
        (quote (("CANCELLED"
                 ("CANCELLED" . t))
                 ("WAITING" . t))
                 ("WAITING" . t))

*** Using =NEXT= for clocked tasks
=TODO= state tasks automatically change to =NEXT= whenever they
are clocked.  There are a few exceptions to this case
- I don't want Capture tasks in a =NEXT= state immediately
  since I clock the time it takes to record capture tasks.
- I want to clock in some tasks without a keyword
- I want to clock parent project tasks with incomplete subtasks

If I clock in a task with a keyword of =TODO= it changes to =NEXT=
otherwise the task is clocked in but the state is left alone.  This
allows me to clock in tasks with no keyword (things like 
=** Organization=) and they never show up in my =NEXT= task lists.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (defun bh/clock-in-to-next (kw)
    "Switch task from TODO to NEXT when clocking in.
  Skips capture tasks and tasks with subtasks"
    (if (and (string-equal kw "TODO")
             (not (and (boundp 'org-capture-mode) org-capture-mode)))
        (let ((subtree-end (save-excursion (org-end-of-subtree t)))
              (has-subtask nil))
            (forward-line 1)
            (while (and (not has-subtask)
                        (< (point) subtree-end)
                        (re-search-forward "^\*+ " subtree-end t))
              (when (member (org-get-todo-state) org-not-done-keywords)
                (setq has-subtask t))))
          (when (not has-subtask)

* Adding New Tasks Quickly with Org Capture
:CUSTOM_ID: Capture
Org Capture mode replaces remember mode for capturing tasks and notes.

To add new tasks efficiently I use a minimal number of capture
templates.  I used to have lots of capture templates, one for each
org-file.  I'd start org-capture with C-M-r and then pick a template
that filed the task under =* Tasks= in the appropriate file.

I found I still needed to refile these capture tasks again to the
correct location within the org-file so all of these different capture
templates weren't really helping at all.  Since then I've changed my
workflow to use a minimal number of capture templates -- I create the
new task quickly and refile it once.  This also saves me from
maintaining my org-capture templates when I add a new org file.
** Capture Templates
:ID:       9507648b-dbfc-4ba1-96c2-36e8ba15cbd0
When a new task needs to be added I categorize it into one of three

- A phone call
- A new task
- A new note

and pick the appropriate capture task.

Here is my setup for org-capture

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-default-notes-file "~/git/org/")
  ;; I use C-M-r to start capture mode
  (global-set-key (kbd "C-M-r") 'org-capture)
  ;; 3 capture templates for TODO tasks, Notes, and org-protocol (untested)
  (setq org-capture-templates (quote (("t" "todo" entry (file "~/git/org/") "* TODO %?
    %a" :clock-in t :clock-resume t)
                                      ("n" "note" entry (file "~/git/org/") "* %?                                                                            :NOTE:
    :END:" :clock-in t :clock-resume t)
                                      ("w" "org-protocol" entry (file "~/git/org/") "* TODO Review %c
    %U" :immediate-finish t :clock-in t :clock-resume t))))

Capture mode now handles automatically clocking in and out of a
capture task.  This all works out of the box now without special hooks.
When I start a capture mode task the task is clocked in as specified
by =:clock-in t= and when the task is filed with =C-c C-c= the clock 
resumes on the original clocking task.

The quick clocking in and out of capture mode tasks (often it takes
less than a minute to capture some new task details) this can leave
empty clock drawers in my tasks which aren't really useful.  Since I
remove clocking lines with 0:00 length I end up with a clock drawer
like this:

: * TODO New Capture Task
:   :CLOCK:
:   :END:
:   [2010-05-08 Sat 13:53]

I have the following setup to remove these empty =CLOCK= drawers if
they occur.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Remove empty CLOCK drawers on clock out
  (defun bh/remove-empty-drawer-on-clock-out ()
      (beginning-of-line 0)
      (org-remove-empty-drawer-at "CLOCK" (point))))
  (add-hook 'org-clock-out-hook 'bh/remove-empty-drawer-on-clock-out 'append)

** Separate file for Capture Tasks
I have a single org file which is the target for my capture templates.

I store notes, tasks, phone calls, and org-protocol tasks in  I used to use multiple files but found that didn't
really have any advantage over a single file.

Normally this file is empty except for a single line at the top which
creates a =REFILE= tag for anything in the file.

The file has a single permanent line at the top like this
#+begin_src org
** Capture Tasks is all about being FAST
Okay I'm in the middle of something and oh yeah - I have to remember
to do that.  I don't stop what I'm doing.  I'm probably clocking a
project I'm working on and I don't want to lose my focus on that but I
can't afford to forget this little thing that just came up.

So what do I do?  Hit =C-M-r= to start capture mode and select =t= since it's a new task and I get a buffer like this
: ** TODO 
:    [2010-08-05 Thu 21:06]
:    [[file:~/git/org-mode-doc/*Capture%20Tasks%20is%20all%20about%20being%20FAST][Capture Tasks is all about being FAST]]

Enter the details of the TODO item and =C-c C-c= to file it away in and go right back to what I'm really working on secure in
the knowledge that that item isn't going to get lost and I don't have
to think about it anymore at all now.

The amount of time I spend entering the captured note is clocked.  The
capture templates are set to automatically clock in and out of the
capture task.  This is great for interruptions and telephone calls
* Refiling Tasks
  :CUSTOM_ID: Refiling
  Refiling tasks is easy.  After collecting a bunch of new tasks in my file using capture mode I need to move these to the
  correct org file and topic.  All of my active org-files are in my
  =org-agenda-files= variable and contribute to the agenda.

  I collect capture tasks in for up to a week.  I do my
  weekly review every Monday and one of the tasks for that is to
  refile all capture tasks.  Often I end up refiling tasks the same
  day I create them because they show up in my daily clock report
  summary and are obviously in the wrong place.
** Refile Setup
To refile tasks in org you need to tell it where you want to refile things.

In my setup I let any file in =org-agenda-files= and the current file
contribute to the list of valid refile targets.  I don't refile to
tasks more then 5 levels deep just to limit the number of displayed
targets.  I also use ido mode to help find targets quickly.

Here is my refile configuration:
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ; Use IDO for target completion
  (setq org-completion-use-ido t)
  ; Targets include this file and any file contributing to the agenda - up to 5 levels deep
  (setq org-refile-targets (quote ((org-agenda-files :maxlevel . 5) (nil :maxlevel . 5))))
  ; Targets start with the file name - allows creating level 1 tasks
  (setq org-refile-use-outline-path (quote file))
  ; Targets complete in steps so we start with filename, TAB shows the next level of targets etc
  (setq org-outline-path-complete-in-steps t)
  ; Allow refile to create parent tasks with confirmation
  (setq org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes (quote confirm))
  ; Use IDO only for buffers
  ; set ido-mode to buffer and ido-everywhere to t via the customize interface
  ; '(ido-mode (quote both) nil (ido))
  ; '(ido-everywhere t)

To refile a task to my file under =System Maintenance= I
just put the cursor on the task and hit =C-c C-w= and enter =nor TAB
sys TAB RET= and it's done.  I always know what file it's going into
but if I don't remember the exact task name I can just hit TAB twice
and all refile targets that match show up in a list.  Just scroll
through the list and pick the right refile target.  This works great!
** Refiling Tasks
To find tasks to refile I run my agenda view (=F12 r= = =C-c a r=)
which shows tasks with the =REFILE= tag.  This view shows all tasks
(even ones marked in a =done= state).

My single capture target file has this tag in the FILETAGS header so
every task in the file can be found using this view.

I visit each file with =REFILE= tasks to refile.  If there are a few
tasks going to the same place (3 or less) I refile the first one, then
move to the second one and use =C-c C-w up-arrow RET= to refile to the
same location again.  If more than 3 tasks are going to the same place
I try to do those last - since refiling everything else away helps to
group those together.  Then I mark those tasks in =m= and bulk refile
them to the same target with =B r= in the agenda view.

Refiling all of my tasks tends to take less than a minute so I may do
this a couple of times a day.
** Refiling Notes
I keep a =* Notes= headline in most of my org-mode files.  Notes have
a =NOTE= tag which is created by the capture template for notes.  This
allows finding notes across multiple files easily using the agenda
search functions.

Notes created by capture tasks go first to and are later
refiled to the appropriate project file.  Some notes that are project
related get filed to the appropriate project instead of under the
catchall =* NOTES= task.  Generally these types of notes are specific
to the project and not generally useful -- so removing them from the
notes list when the project is archived makes sense.
** Refiling Phone Calls
Phone calls are handled using a few custom functions and a special key
binding.  I time my calls using the capture mode template settings to
clock in and out the capture task while the phone call is in progress.

Phone call tasks collect in and are later refiled to the
appropriate location.  Some phone calls are billable and we want these
tracked in the appropriate category.
* Custom agenda views
I have 10 custom agenda views defined.  Most of my old custom agenda
views were rendered obsolete when filtering functionality was added to
the agenda in newer versions of =org-mode=.

Custom agenda views are used for:
1. Finding tasks waiting on something
2. Finding tasks to be refiled
3. Finding notes
4. Finding =NEXT= tasks to work on
5. Reviewing projects
6. Reviewing other non-project tasks
7. Findings tasks to be archived
8. Viewing habits
9. Finding stuck projects
10. Setting the default clocking task for punching in

** Setup
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
        (quote (("w" "Tasks waiting on something" tags "WAITING/!"
                 ((org-use-tag-inheritance nil)
                  (org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled nil)
                  (org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines nil)
                  (org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date nil)
                  (org-agenda-overriding-header "Waiting Tasks")))
                ("r" "Refile New Notes and Tasks" tags "LEVEL=1+REFILE"
                 ((org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date nil)
                  (org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines nil)
                  (org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled nil)
                  (org-agenda-overriding-header "Tasks to Refile")))
                ("N" "Notes" tags "NOTE"
                 ((org-agenda-overriding-header "Notes")))
                ("n" "Next" tags-todo "-WAITING-CANCELLED/!NEXT"
                 ((org-agenda-overriding-header "Next Tasks")))
                ("p" "Projects" tags-todo "LEVEL=2-REFILE|LEVEL=1+REFILE/!-DONE-CANCELLED"
                 ((org-agenda-skip-function 'bh/skip-non-projects)
                  (org-agenda-overriding-header "Projects")))
                ("o" "Other (Non-Project) tasks" tags-todo "LEVEL=2-REFILE|LEVEL=1+REFILE/!-DONE-CANCELLED"
                 ((org-agenda-skip-function 'bh/skip-projects)
                  (org-agenda-overriding-header "Other Non-Project Tasks")))
                ("A" "Tasks to be Archived" tags "LEVEL=2-REFILE/DONE|CANCELLED"
                 ((org-agenda-overriding-header "Tasks to Archive")))
                ("h" "Habits" tags "STYLE=\"habit\""
                 ((org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date nil)
                  (org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled nil)
                  (org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines nil)
                  (org-agenda-overriding-header "Habits")))
                ("#" "Stuck Projects" tags-todo "LEVEL=2-REFILE|LEVEL=1+REFILE/!-DONE-CANCELLED"
                 ((org-agenda-skip-function 'bh/skip-non-stuck-projects)
                  (org-agenda-overriding-header "Stuck Projects")))
                ("c" "Select default clocking task" tags "LEVEL=2-REFILE"
                   '(org-agenda-skip-subtree-if 'notregexp "^\\*\\* Organization"))
                  (org-agenda-overriding-header "Set default clocking task with C-u C-u I"))))))

My day goes generally like this:

- Punch in (start the clock)
- Look at my agenda =F12 a=
  - make a note of anything important to deal with today
- Read email and news
  - create notes, and tasks for things that need responses with org-capture
- Check refile tasks and respond to emails
- Look at my agenda and knock off tasks scheduled for today
  - Clock it in (=I= in the agenda or on the beginning of a task headline 
    - this changes =TODO= state tasks to =NEXT= when there are no unfinished subtasks
  - Work on it until it is =DONE= or it gets interrupted
- work on tasks
- Punch out and go for lunch
- Punch in and continue work for the afternoon
- work on tasks
- Check today's time log report and refile tasks with clocked time
  - =F12 a R= - any tasks in should be moved to the appropriate file
  - =F12 r= to get to refile tasks
  - Tag files to be filed with =m= collecting all tasks for the same target
  - Bulk refile the tasks to the target location with =B r=
  - repeat until the agenda timeclock report has all of the time in project files
- Punch out (stop the clock)

** What do I work on next?
Use the agenda view for =NEXT= tasks to find stuff in progress and
things to clock.

When I look for a new task to work on I generally hit =F12 a= to get
today's agenda and follow this order:

- Pick something off today's agenda
  - deadline for today (do this first - it's not late yet)
  - deadline in the past (it's already late)
  - deadline that is coming up soon
  - a scheduled task for today (or in the past)
- pick a NEXT task
- If you run out of items to work on look for NEXT task in the current context
  F12 n / RET

*** Why keep it all on the =NEXT= list?
I've moved to a more GTD way of doing things.  I don't have a
=STARTED= list or todo keyword anymore.  Now I just use a =NEXT= list.
If I clock a TODO keyword it changes to =NEXT= if that is appropriate
automagically on clock in.  A =NEXT= task is something that is
available to work on /now/, it was either clocked already or is the
next logical step in some project.

I used to have a special keyword =ONGOING= for things that I do a lot
and want to clock but never really start/end.  I had a special agenda
view for =ONGOING= tasks that I would pull up to easily find the thing
I want to clock.

Since then I've moved away from using the =ONGOING= todo keyword.  If
a task is clocked-in it automatically moves to the =NEXT= state from
=TODO= state and shows up on the =NEXT= task list without having to
think about it.  Having an agenda view that shows =NEXT= tasks makes
it easy to pick the thing to clock - and I don't have to remember if I
need to look in the =ONGOING= list or the =NEXT= list when looking for
the task to clock-in.  The =NEXT= list is basically 'what is
current' - stuff I worked on recently and need to finish and any task
that moves a project forward.  I want to find the thing to work on as
fast as I can and actually do work on it - not spend time hunting
through my org files for the task that needs to be clocked-in.

To drop a task off the =NEXT= list simply move it back to the =TODO=
** Reading email, newsgroups, and conversations on IRC
When reading email, newsgroups, and conversations on IRC I just let
the default task (normally =** Organization=) clock the time I spend on
these tasks.  To read email I go to Gnus and read everything in my
inboxes.  If there are emails that require a response I use
org-capture to create a new task with a heading of 'Respond to <user>'
for each one.  This automatically links to the email in the task and
makes it easy to find later.  Some emails are quick to respond to and
some take research and a significant amount of time to complete.  I
clock each one in it's own task just in case I need that clocked time

Next, I go to my newly created tasks to be refiled with =F12 r= and
clock in an email task and deal with it.  Repeat this until all of
the 'Respond to <user>' tasks are marked =DONE=.

I read email and newgroups in Gnus so I don't separate clocked time
for quickly looking at things.  If an article has a useful piece of
information I want to remember I create a note for it with =C-M-r n=
and enter the topic and file it.  This takes practically no time at
all and I know the note is safely filed for later retrieval.  The time
I spend in the capture buffer is clocked with that capture note.
** Filtering

So many tasks, so little time.  I have hundreds of tasks at any given
time (373 right now).  There is so much stuff to look at it can be
daunting.  This is where agenda filtering saves the day.

It's 11:53AM and I'm in work mode just before lunch.  I don't want to
see tasks that are not work related right now.  I also don't want to
work on a big project just before lunch... so I need to find small
tasks that I can knock off the list.

How do we do this?  Get a list of NEXT tasks with =F12 n= and then
narrow it down with filtering.  To find tasks to work on I remove
tasks I'm not supposed to be working on now with =/ RET=.  Then limit
to tasks with estimates of 10 minutes or less with =/ + 1= and I can
pick something that fits the minutes I have left before I take off for

*** Automatically removing context based tasks with / RET
=/ RET= in the agenda is really useful.  This awesome feature was
added to org-mode by John Wiegley.  It removes tasks automatically by
filtering based on a user-provided function.

I work from home and set up my day as follows:

- On weekdays 8am-12am, 1pm-5pm I'm working (@office)
- My son (Mark) is available on weekdays before school 8am-9am
  and after school to bedtime 4pm-8pm (MARK), and weekends
- Home tasks are done outside working hours (@home)

I have the following setup to allow =/ RET= to filter tasks based on
what the computer determines my current context to be at the time I
run the =/ RET= filter command.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (defun bh/weekday-p ()
    (let ((wday (nth 6 (decode-time))))
      (and (< wday 6) (> wday 0))))
  (defun bh/working-p ()
    (let ((hour (nth 2 (decode-time))))
      (and (bh/weekday-p) (or (and (>= hour 8) (<= hour 11))
                             (and (>= hour 13) (<= hour 16))))))
  (defun bh/network-p ()
    (= 0 (call-process "/bin/ping" nil nil nil
                       "-c1" "-q" "-t1" "")))
  (defun bh/org-auto-exclude-function (tag)
    (and (cond
         ((string= tag "@home")
         ((string= tag "@office")
          (not (bh/working-p)))
         ((or (string= tag "@errand") (string= tag "phone"))
          (let ((hour (nth 2 (decode-time))))
            (or (< hour 8) (> hour 21)))))
         (concat "-" tag)))
  (setq org-agenda-auto-exclude-function 'bh/org-auto-exclude-function)

This lets me filter tasks with just =/ RET= on the agenda which removes tasks I'm not
supposed to be working on now from the list of returned results.

This helps to keep my agenda clutter-free.
* Time Clocking
:CUSTOM_ID: Clocking
Okay, I admit it.  I'm a clocking fanatic.

I clock everything (well almost everything).  Org-mode makes this
really easy.  I'd rather clock too much stuff than not enough so I
find it's easier to get in the habit of clocking everything.

As an example of what I mean my clock data for April 20, 2009 shows 14
hours 19 minutes of clocked time (which included 3 hours and 17
minutes of painting my basement.)  My clocked day started at 6:57AM
and ended at 23:11PM.  I have only a few holes in my clocked day
(where I wasn't clocking anything):
| Missing Clock Data |
|        16:14-16:53 |
|        16:55-17:19 |
|        18:00-18:52 |

This makes it possible to look back at the day and see where I'm
spending too much time, or not enough time on specific projects.

Without clocking data it's hard to tell what you did after the fact.

I now use the concept of punching in and punching out at the start and
end of my work day.  This defines a default task to clock time on
whenever the clock would normally stop.  I found that with the default
org-mode setup I would lose clocked minutes during the day, a minute
here, a minute there, and that all adds up.  This is especially true
if you write notes when moving to a DONE state - in this case the
clock normally stops before you have composed the note.

My clocking setup basically works like this:

- Punch in (start the clock)
  - This identifies a task that is the default task to clock in
    whenever the clock normally stops
- Clock in tasks normally, and let moving to a DONE state clock out
  - clocking out automatically clocks time on the default task
- Continue clocking whatever tasks you work on
- Punch out (stop the clock)

I'm free to change the default task multiple times during the day.  If
I'm working on =Project X= then I can make the top-level =Project X=
task the default and all clocked time goes on that project until I
either punch out or change to some other default task.

I now have a default level 2 =** Organization= task that I use for
every major context I clock time in.

My org files are look like this:
: ...
: * Miscellaneous						       :misc:
: ** Organization
: ...
: ...
: * Tuning 							     :tuning:
: ** Organization
: ...
: ...
: * Administration						      :admin:
: ** Organization
: ...
: ...
: * Administration						      :admin:
: ** Organization
: ...

If I am working on tasks, then I set the =**
Organization= task as the default clock task.  If I'm working for
client =SOMECLIENT= then I set the =** Organization= task in as the default task etc.  This allows me to block time
on my calendar and work on a single context for some time frame of my
day, then totally switch to another context simply by changing my
default clocking task.  Or course if I get interrupted in the middle
of the day clocking in a task puts time on that task regardless of the
context I'm supposed to be working in.

This works really well for me.

** Clock Setup
:CUSTOM_ID: ClockSetup

To get started we need to set the default clocking task which we use
to clock in whenever the clock would normally stop.  I use a special
custom agenda view for this and I think of it as selecting the context
for what I'm going to work on for the next few hours.

=F12 c= shows me the tasks I can normally set as the default clocking
task.  I'm free to set any task as the default but these are the ones
I normally use.

Keeping the clock running when moving a subtask to a =DONE= state
means clocking continues to apply to the parent task.  I can pick the
next task from the parent and clock that in without losing a minute or
two while I'm deciding what to work on next.

I keep clock times in a =:CLOCK:= drawer and state changes in a
=:LOGBOOK:= drawer.

I have the following org-mode settings for clocking:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Resume clocking tasks when emacs is restarted
  ;; Yes it's long... but more is better ;)
  (setq org-clock-history-length 28)
  ;; Resume clocking task on clock-in if the clock is open
  (setq org-clock-in-resume t)
  ;; Change task state to NEXT when clocking in
  (setq org-clock-in-switch-to-state (quote bh/clock-in-to-next))
  ;; Separate drawers for clocking and logs
  (setq org-drawers (quote ("PROPERTIES" "LOGBOOK" "CLOCK")))
  ;; Save clock data in the CLOCK drawer and state changes and notes in the LOGBOOK drawer
  (setq org-clock-into-drawer "CLOCK")
  ;; Sometimes I change tasks I'm clocking quickly - this removes clocked tasks with 0:00 duration
  (setq org-clock-out-remove-zero-time-clocks t)
  ;; Clock out when moving task to a done state
  (setq org-clock-out-when-done t)
  ;; Save the running clock and all clock history when exiting Emacs, load it on startup
  (setq org-clock-persist (quote history))
  ;; Enable auto clock resolution for finding open clocks
  (setq org-clock-auto-clock-resolution (quote when-no-clock-is-running))
  ;; Include current clocking task in clock reports
  (setq org-clock-report-include-clocking-task t)
  (setq bh/keep-clock-running nil)
  (defun bh/clock-in ()
    (setq bh/keep-clock-running t)
    (if (marker-buffer org-clock-default-task)
        (unless (org-clock-is-active)
      (unless (marker-buffer org-clock-default-task)
        (org-agenda nil "c"))))
  (defun bh/clock-out ()
    (setq bh/keep-clock-running nil)
    (when (org-clock-is-active)
  (defun bh/clock-in-default-task ()
      (org-with-point-at org-clock-default-task
  (defun bh/clock-out-maybe ()
    (when (and bh/keep-clock-running (not org-clock-clocking-in) (marker-buffer org-clock-default-task))
  (add-hook 'org-clock-out-hook 'bh/clock-out-maybe 'append)

I used to clock in tasks by ID using the following function but with
the new punch-in and punch-out I don't need these anymore.  =f9-SPC=
calls =bh/clock-in-last-task= which switches the clock back to the
previously clocked task.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (require 'org-id)  
  (defun bh/clock-in-task-by-id (id)
    "Clock in a task by id"
      (org-with-point-at (org-id-find id 'marker)
        (org-clock-in nil))))
  (defun bh/clock-in-last-task ()
    "Clock in the interrupted task if there is one"
    (let ((clock-in-to-task (if (org-clock-is-active)
                                (setq clock-in-to-task (cadr org-clock-history))
                              (setq clock-in-to-task (car org-clock-history)))))
      (org-with-point-at clock-in-to-task
        (org-clock-in nil))))

** Clocking in
When I start or continue working on a task I clock it in with =C-c C-x
C-i= (or just =I= in the agenda or speed key setting).  This changes
the task state from =TODO= to =NEXT= and starts the clock for this

*** Setting a default clock task

I have a default =** Organization= task in my file that I
tend to put miscellaneous clock time on.  While reorganizing my
org-files and doing other planning work that isn't for a specific
project I'll clock in this task while I do things.  By clocking this
task in with a double prefix =C-u C-u C-c C-x C-i= it starts the clock
and makes this the default clock task.  The first punch-in of the day
(=f9 I=) shows the context agenda view if no default task is selected,
otherwise it just clocks in the default task.

You can quickly clock in the default task with =C-u C-c C-x C-i d=

I now set the default clocking task when I punch in and clocking out
of any task will clock in this default task until I punch out using
the clocking hooks I have set up.

The only thing I need to remember is to set a new default clock task
when I switch contexts (stop working for client A and start working
for client B).
*** Using the clock history to clock in old tasks
You can use the clock history to restart clocks on old tasks you've
clocked or to jump directly to a task you have clocked previously.  I
use this mainly to clock in whatever got interrupted by something.

Consider the following scenario:

- You are working on and clocking =Task A= (Organization)
- You get interrupted and switch to =Task B= (Document my use of org-mode)
- You complete =Task B= (Document my use of org-mode)
- Now you want to go back to =Task A= (Organization) again to continue

This is easy to deal with.  
1. Clock in =Task A=, work on it
2. Go to =Task B= (or create a new task) and clock it in
3. When you are finished with =Task B= hit =C-u C-c C-x C-i i=

This displays a clock history selection window like the following and
selects the interrupted =[i]= entry.

*Clock history selection buffer for C-u C-c C-x C-i*
  Default Task
  [d] norang          Organization                          <-- Task B
  The task interrupted by starting the last one
  [i] norang          Organization                          <-- Task B
  Current Clocking Task
  [c] org             NEXT Document my use of org-mode      <-- Task A
  Recent Tasks
  [1] org             NEXT Document my use of org-mode      <-- Task A
  [2] norang          Organization                          <-- Task B
  [Z] org             DONE Fix default section links        <-- 35 clock task entries ago
** Clock Everything - Create New Tasks
In order to clock everything you need a task for everything.  That's
fine for planned projects but interruptions inevitably occur and you
need some place to record whatever time you spend on that

To deal with this we create a new capture task to record the thing we
are about to do.  The workflow goes something like this:

- You are clocking some task and an interruption occurs
- Create a quick capture task =C-M-r=
- Type the heading 
- clock it in =C-c C-x C-i=
- file it =C-c C-c=
- switch the clock back to it =F9 SPC=
- Go do it
- mark it =DONE= which stops the clock (or switches to the context
  default clocking task you punched in earlier)
- clock something else in
- refile the newly created and clocked task later

This means you can ignore the details like where this task really
belongs in your org file layout and just get on with completing the
thing.  Refiling a bunch of tasks later in a group when it is
convenient to refile the tasks saves time in the long run.
** Finding tasks to clock in
To find a task to work on I use one of the following options
(generally listed most frequently used first)

- Use the clock history C-u C-c C-x C-i
  Go back to something I was clocking that is not finished
- Pick something off today's agenda
  =SCHEDULED= or =DEADLINE= items that need to be done soon
- Pick something off the =NEXT= tasks agenda view
  Work on some unfinished task to move to completion
- Pick something off the other (non-project) task list 
- Use an agenda view with filtering to pick something to work on
** Editing clock entries
Sometimes it is necessary to edit clock entries so they reflect
reality.  I find I do this for maybe 2-3 entries in a week.

Occassionally I cannot clock in a task on time because I'm away from
my computer.  In this case the previous clocked task is still running
and counts time for both tasks which is wrong.

I make a note of the time and then when I get back to my computer I
clock in the right task and edit the start and end times to correct
the clock history.

To visit the clock line for an entry quickly use the agenda log mode.
=F12 a l= shows all clock lines for today.  I use this to navigate to
the appropriate clock lines quickly.  F11 goes to the current clocked
task but the agenda log mode is better for finding and visiting older
clock entries.
Use =F12 a l= to open the agenda in log mode and show only logged
clock times.  Move the cursor down to the clock line you need to edit
and hit =TAB= and you're there.

To edit a clock entry just put the cursor on the part of the date you
want to edit (use the keyboard not the mouse - since the clicking on
the timestamp with the mouse goes back to the agenda for that day) and
hit the =S-<up arrow>= or =S-<down arrow>= keys to change the time.

The following setting makes time editing round to 15 minute
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes (quote (1 15)))

Editing the time with the shift arrow combination also updates the
total for the clock line which is a nice convenience.

I always check that I haven't created task overlaps when fixing time
clock entries by viewing them with log mode on in the agenda.

I want my clock entries to be as accurate as possible but editing to
the exact minute (instead of rounding to 15 minutes) takes more time
and isn't worth the hassle.  Rounding to 15 minutes gets me close to
the time I want quickly and if extra refining is needed I can edit the
timestamp directly and update the total with C-c C-y.
* Time reporting and tracking
** Billing clients based on clocked time
At the beginning of the month I invoice my clients for work done last
month.  This is where I review my clocking data for correctness before
billing for the clocked time.

Billing for clocked time basically boils down to the following steps:

1. Verify that the clock data is complete and correct
2. Use clock reports to summarize time spent
3. Create an invoice based on the clock data

   I currently create invoices in an external software package
   based on the org-mode clock data.

4. Archive complete tasks so they are out of the way.

   See [[*Archiving]] for more details.
*** Verify that the clock data is complete and correct
Since I change tasks often (sometimes more than once in a minute) I
use the following setting to remove clock entries with a zero
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Sometimes I change tasks I'm clocking quickly - this removes clocked tasks with 0:00 duration
  (setq org-clock-out-remove-zero-time-clocks t)

This setting just keeps my clocked log entries clean - only keeping
clock entries that contribute to the clock report.

Before invoicing for clocked time it is important to make sure your
clocked time data is correct.  If you have a clocked time with an
entry that is not closed (ie. it has no end time) then that is a hole
in your clocked day and it gets counted as zero (0) for time spent on
the task when generating clock reports.  Counting it as zero is almost
certainly wrong.

To check for unclosed clock times I use the agenda-view log-mode (=l=
in the agenda) with the following setup which shows clocked times only
by default.  (To see all task state changes you can issue a prefix to
this command (=C-u l= in the agenda)).

To check the last month's clock data I use =F12 a v m b l= which shows
a full month in the agenda, moves to the previous month, and shows the
clocked times only.

The clocked-time only display in the agenda makes it easy to quickly
scan down the list to see if an entry is missing an end time.  If an
entry is not closed you can manually fix the clock entry based on
other clock info around that time.

Use the following setup to get log mode in the agenda to only show
clocked times:
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Agenda log mode items to display (clock time only by default)
  (setq org-agenda-log-mode-items (quote (clock)))
*** Using clock reports to summarize time spent
Billable time for clients are kept in separate org files.

To get a report of time spent on tasks for you simply visit
the file and run an agenda clock report for the last month
with =F12 < a v m b R=.  This limits the agenda to this one file,
shows the agenda for a full month, moves to last month, and generates
a clock report.  Just scroll down to the end of the agenda to see the

I export the agenda to a text file with =C-x C-w XYZ.txt= so I can cut
and paste the report and save it as supporting information with the

My agenda org clock report settings show 2 levels of detail and do not
show links so that they are easier to cut and paste into other
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Agenda clock report parameters (no links, 2 levels deep)
  (setq org-agenda-clockreport-parameter-plist (quote (:link nil :maxlevel 2)))

I used to have a monthly clock report dynamic block in each project
org file and manually updated them at the end of my billing cycle.  I
used this as the basis for billing my clients for time spent on their
projects.  I found updating the dynamic blocks fairly tedious when you
have more than a couple of files for the month.

I have since moved to using agenda clock reports shortly after that
feature was added.  I find this much more convenient.  The data isn't
normally for consumption by anyone else so the format of the agenda
clock report format is great for my use-case.
** Task Estimates and column view
:CUSTOM_ID: TaskEstimates
Estimating how long tasks take to complete is a difficult skill to
master.  Org-mode makes it easy to practice creating estimates for
tasks and then clock the actual time it takes to complete.

By repeatedly estimating tasks and reviewing how your estimate relates
to the actual time clocked you can tune your estimating skills.
*** Creating a task estimate with column mode
I use =properties= and =column view= to do project estimates.

I set up column view globally with the following headlines
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ; Set default column view headings: Task Effort Clock_Summary
  (setq org-columns-default-format "%80ITEM(Task) %10Effort(Effort){:} %10CLOCKSUM")

This makes column view show estimated task effort and clocked times
side-by-side which is great for reviewing your project estimates.

A property called =Effort= records the estimated amount of time a
given task will take to complete.  The estimate times I use are one

- 10 minutes
- 30 minutes
- 1 hour
- 2 hours
- 3 hours
- 4 hours
- 5 hours
- 6 hours
- 7 hours
- 8 hours

These are stored for easy use in =column mode= in the global property
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ; global Effort estimate values
  (setq org-global-properties (quote (("Effort_ALL" . "0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00"))))

To create an estimate for a task or subtree start column mode with
=C-c C-x C-c= and collapse the tree with =c=.  This shows a table
overlayed on top of the headlines with the task name, effort estimate,
and clocked time in columns.

With the cursor in the =Effort= column for a task you can easily set
the estimated effort value with the quick keys =1= through =9=.

After setting the effort values exit =column mode= with =q=.
*** Saving your estimate
:CUSTOM_ID: SavingEstimate
For fixed price jobs where you provide your estimate to a client, then
work to complete the project it is useful to save the original
estimate that is provided to the client.

Save your original estimate by creating a dynamic clock report table
at the top of your estimated project subtree.  Entering =C-c C-x i
RET= inserts a clock table report with your estimated values and any
clocked time to date.

#+begin_src org
  Original Estimate
  #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id local
  | Task                        | Estimated Effort | CLOCKSUM |
  | ** TODO Project to estimate |             5:40 |          |
  | *** TODO Step 1             |             0:10 |          |
  | *** TODO Step 2             |             0:10 |          |
  | *** TODO Step 3             |             5:10 |          |
  | **** TODO Step 3.1          |             2:00 |          |
  | **** TODO Step 3.2          |             3:00 |          |
  | **** TODO Step 3.3          |             0:10 |          |
  | *** TODO Step 4             |             0:10 |          |

I normally delete the =#+BEGIN:= and =#+END:= lines from the original
table after providing the estimate to the client to ensure I don't
accidentally update the table by hitting =C-c C-c= on the =#+BEGIN:=

Saving the original estimate data makes it possible to refine the
project tasks into subtasks as you work on the project without losing
the original estimate data.
*** Reviewing your estimate
=Column view= is great for reviewing your estimate.  This shows your
estimated time value and the total clock time for the project

Creating a dynamic clock table with =C-c C-x i RET= is a great way to
save this project review if you need to make it available to other

=C-c C-x C-d= also provides a quick summary of clocked time for the
current org file.
* Tags
Tasks can have any number of arbitrary tags.  Tags are used for:

- filtering todo lists and agenda views
- providing context for tasks
- tagging notes
- tagging phone calls
- tagging tasks to be refiled
- tagging tasks in a WAITING state because a parent task is WAITING
- tagging cancelled tasks because a parent task is CANCELLED
- preventing export of some subtrees when publishing

I use tags mostly for filtering in the agenda.  This means you can
find tasks with a specific tag easily across your large number of
org-mode files.

Some tags are mutually exclusive.  These are defined in a group so
that only one of the tags can be applied to a task at a time
(disregarding tag inheritance).  I use these types for tags for
applying context to a task.  (Work tasks have an =@office= tag, and
are done at the office, Farm tasks have an =@farm= tag and are done at
the farm -- I can't change the oil on the tractor if I'm not at the
farm... so I hide these and other tasks by filtering my agenda view to
only =@office= tasks when I'm at the office.)

Tasks are grouped together in org-files and a =#+FILETAGS:= entry
applies a tag to all tasks in the file.  I use this to apply a tag to
all tasks in the file.  My file creates a NORANG file tag
so I can filter tasks in the agenda in the file easily.

** Tags
Here are my tag definitions with associated keys for filtering in the
agenda views.

The startgroup - endgroup (=@XXX=) tags are mutually exclusive -
selecting one removes a similar tag already on the task.  These are
the context tags - you can't be in two places at once so if a task is
marked with @farm and you add @office then the @farm tag is removed

The other tags =QUOTE= .. =CANCELLED= are not mutually exclusive and
multiple tags can appear on a single task.  Some of those tags are
created by todo state change triggers.  The shortcut key is used to
add or remove the tag using =C-c C-q= or to apply the task for
filtering on the agenda.

I have both =FARM= and =@farm= tags.  =FARM= is set by a =FILETAGS=
entry and just gives me a way to filter anything farm related.  The
=@farm= tag signifies that the task as to be done /at the farm/.  If I
have to call someone about something that would have a =FARM= tag but
I can do that at home on my lunch break.  I don't physically have to
be at the farm to make the call.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ; Tags with fast selection keys
  (setq org-tag-alist (quote ((:startgroup)
                              ("@errand" . ?e)
                              ("@office" . ?o)
                              ("@home" . ?h)
                              ("@farm" . ?f)
                              ("PHONE" . ?P)
                              ("QUOTE" . ?q)
                              ("WAITING" . ?w)
                              ("FARM" . ?F)
                              ("HOME" . ?H)
                              ("ORG" . ?O)
                              ("NORANG" . ?N)
                              ("crypt" . ?c)
                              ("MARK" . ?M)
                              ("NOTE" . ?n)
                              ("CANCELLED" . ?C))))
  ; Allow setting single tags without the menu
  (setq org-fast-tag-selection-single-key (quote expert))
  ; For tag searches ignore tasks with scheduled and deadline dates
  (setq org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options t)

** Filetags
Filetags are a convenient way to apply one or more tags to all of the
headings in a file.

Filetags look like this:

#+begin_src org
  #+FILETAGS: NORANG @office

I have the following =#+FILETAGS:= entries in my org-mode files:

*** Non-work related org-mode files
| File         | Tags         |
|     | HOME         |
| | GSOC HOME    |
|   | BZFLAG @home |
|      | GIT          |
|      | ORG          |
|     | MARK         |
|     | FARM         |

*** Work related org-mode files
| File        | Tags            |
|  | NORANG @office  |
|     | ABC @office     |
|     | XYZ @office     |
| | ABC DEF @office |
| | ABC KKK @office |
|     | YYY @office     |

*** Refile tasks
| File       | Tags         |
| | REFILE       |

** Trigger Tags
The following tags are automatically added or removed by todo state
triggers described previously in [[*ToDo%20state%20triggers][*ToDo state triggers]]

- =NEXT=
* Handling Notes
Notes are little gems of knowledge that you come across during your
day.  They are just like tasks except there is nothing to do (except
learn and memorize the gem of knowledge).  Unfortunately there are way
too many gems to remember and my head explodes just thinking about it.

org-mode to the rescue!

Often I'll find some cool feature or thing I want to remember while
reading the org-mode and git mailing lists in Gnus.  To create a note
I use my note capture template =C-M-r n=, type a heading for the note
and =C-c C-c= to save it.  The only other thing to do is to refile it
(later) to the appropriate project file.

I have an agenda view just to find notes.  Notes are refiled to an
appropriate project file and task.  If there is no specific task it
belongs to it goes to the catchall =* Notes= task.  I generally have a
catchall notes task in every project file.  Notes are created with a
=NOTE= tag already applied by the capture template so I'm free to
refile the note anywhere.  As long as the note is in a project file
that contributes to my agenda (ie. in org-agenda-files) then I can
find the note back easily with my notes agenda view by hitting the key
combination =F12 N=.  I'm free to limit the agenda view of notes using
standard agenda tag filtering.

Short notes with a meaningful headline are a great way to remember
technical details without the need to actually remember anything -
other than how to find them back when you need them using =F12 N=.

Notes that are project related and not generally useful can be
archived with the project and removed from the agenda when the project
is removed.

So my org notes go in and my git notes go in both
under the =* Notes= task.  I'll forever be able to find those.  A note
about some work project detail I want to remember with the project is
filed to the project task under the appropriate work org-mode file and
eventually gets removed from the agenda when the project is complete
and archived.
* Handling Phone Calls
Phone calls are interruptions and I use capture mode to deal with
these.  Most of the heavy lifting for phone calls is done by capture
mode.  I use a special capture template for phone calls but activate
it with a custom key binding =f9-p=.  I've removed my phone capture
mode template from my regular templates since I always use the
=bh/phone-call= function mapped to =f9-p= to invoke the capture
template.  The definition of this template is now local to the

=f9 p= prompts for who is calling and looks up the entered name in my
=bbdb= database with completion.  The capture template is then filled
in with the appropriate contact data and capture mode starts the clock
using the =:clock-in t= setting in the template.

Here is my set up for phone calls.  I would like to thank Gregory
J. Grubbs for the bbdb lookup functions.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ; Set f9-p to prompt for who is calling and preload the capture template
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> p") 'bh/phone-call)
  ;; Phone capture template handling with BBDB lookup
  ;; modified from the original code by Gregory J. Grubbs
  (defvar gjg/capture-phone-record nil
    "Either BBDB record vector, or person's name as a string, or nil")
  (defun bh/phone-call ()
    (let* ((myname (completing-read "Who is calling? " (bbdb-hashtable) 'bbdb-completion-predicate 'confirm))
           (my-bbdb-name (if (> (length myname) 0) myname nil)))
      (setq gjg/capture-phone-record
            (if my-bbdb-name
                (first (or (bbdb-search (bbdb-records) my-bbdb-name nil nil)
                           (bbdb-search (bbdb-records) nil my-bbdb-name nil)))
      (other-window 1)
      (let ((org-capture-templates '(("P" "Phone" entry (file "~/git/org/") "* TODO Phone %(gjg/bbdb-name) - %(gjg/bbdb-company)               :PHONE:\n  %U\n  %?" :clock-in t :clock-resume t))))
  (defun gjg/bbdb-name ()
    "Return full name of saved bbdb record, or empty string - for use in Capture templates"
    (if (and gjg/capture-phone-record (vectorp gjg/capture-phone-record))
        (concat "[[bbdb:"
                (bbdb-record-name gjg/capture-phone-record) "]["
                (bbdb-record-name gjg/capture-phone-record) "]]")
  (defun gjg/bbdb-company ()
    "Return company of saved bbdb record, or empty string - for use in Capture templates"
    (if (and gjg/capture-phone-record (vectorp gjg/capture-phone-record))
        (or (bbdb-record-company gjg/capture-phone-record) "")
* GTD stuff
Most of my day is deadline/schedule driven.
I work off of the agenda first and then pick items from the todo lists as
outlined in [[*What%20do%20I%20work%20on%20next][*What do I work on next]]

** Weekly Review Process
The first day of the week (usually Monday) I do my weekly review. 
I keep a list like this one to remind me what needs to be done.

To keep the agenda fast I set
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-agenda-ndays 1)
so only today's date is shown by default.  I only need the weekly
view during my weekly review and this keeps my agenda generation

I have a recurring task which keeps my weekly review checklist
handy.  This pops up as a reminder on Monday's.  This week I'm
doing my weekly review on Tuesday since Monday was a holiday.

: ** NEXT Weekly Review [0/5]
:    SCHEDULED: <2009-05-18 Mon ++1w> 
:    :LOGBOOK:...
:    :PROPERTIES:...
:    What to review:
:     - [ ] Check follow-up folder
:     - [ ] Review new tasks                                  F12-r
:       - if it takes less than 5 minutes just do it
:       - otherwise assign an estimated time and file it somewhere
:       - Refile billable work to appropriate location
:     - [ ] Check for stuck projects and add next tasks       F12-#         
:     - [ ] Review tasks                                      F12 t
:       - [ ] Waiting tasks                                         / W
:       - [ ] Next Tasks                                      F12 n
:         - Move NEXT tag to subtasks or remove as required
:     - [ ] Make plan for the week (out of NEXT tasks)
:       - schedule important items onto the agenda
:       - [ ] Review weekly plan                              F12 a v w
:     - start work
:       - daily agenda first - knock off items
:         - complete them or adjust deadline warning days appropriately
:       - when agenda is empty - work on next tasks

The first item [ ] Check follow-up folder makes me pull out the paper
file I dump stuff into all week long - things I need to take care of
but are in no particular hurry to deal with.  Stuff I get in the mail
etc that I don't want to deal with now.  I just toss it in my
=Follow-Up= folder in the filing cabinet and forget about it until the
weekly review.

I go through the folder and weed out anything that needs to be dealt
with.  After that everything else is in =org-mode=.  I tend to
schedule tasks onto the agenda for the coming week so that I don't
spend lots of time trying to find what needs to be worked on next.

This works for me.  You're mileage may vary ;)
** Project definition and finding stuck projects
:CUSTOM_ID: Projects
I'm using a new lazy project definition to mark tasks as projects.
This requires zero effort from me.  Any task with a subtask using a
todo keyword is a project.  Period.

Projects are 'stuck' if they have no subtask with a =NEXT= todo
keyword task defined.

Org-mode stuck projects lists projects that have no =NEXT= task
defined.  I normally review these in my weekly review and assign a
=NEXT= task to all projects to clear the stuck project list.  This
helps to keep projects moving forward.

I use a custom agenda view that overrides the default
=org-stuck-projects= definition to find stuck projects.

The stuck project view is available with =F12 #=.

I have the following helper functions defined for projects.  These are
used by agenda views.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (defun bh/is-project-p ()
    "Any task with a todo keyword subtask"
    (let ((has-subtask)
          (subtree-end (save-excursion (org-end-of-subtree t))))
        (forward-line 1)
        (while (and (not has-subtask)
                    (< (point) subtree-end)
                    (re-search-forward "^\*+ " subtree-end t))
          (when (member (org-get-todo-state) org-todo-keywords-1)
            (setq has-subtask t))))
  (defun bh/skip-non-stuck-projects ()
    "Skip trees that are not stuck projects"
    (let* ((subtree-end (save-excursion (org-end-of-subtree t)))
           (has-next (save-excursion
                       (forward-line 1)
                       (and (< (point) subtree-end)
                            (re-search-forward "^\\*+ NEXT " subtree-end t)))))
      (if (and (bh/is-project-p) (not has-next))
          nil ; a stuck project, has subtasks but no next task
  (defun bh/skip-non-projects ()
    "Skip trees that are not projects"
    (let* ((subtree-end (save-excursion (org-end-of-subtree t))))
      (if (bh/is-project-p)
  (defun bh/skip-projects ()
    "Skip trees that are projects"
    (let* ((subtree-end (save-excursion (org-end-of-subtree t))))
      (if (bh/is-project-p)

* Archiving
** Archiving Subtrees
My normal archiving procedure is to move entire subtrees to a separate
archive file for the project.  Task subtrees in get
archived to =FILE.org_archive= using the =a y= command in the agenda.

I archive entire projects and subtrees into a single forever-growing
file.  My archive files are huge but so far I haven't found a need to
split them by year (or decade) :)

All of my tasks to archive start at level 2.  I use an agenda custom
command =F12 A= to list candidate tasks for archiving.  My normal
sequence is =F12 A= followed by repeated =n SPC= in the agenda to
display the task candidate for archiving.  If I closed it over a month
ago I archive it.  If it was closed this month or last month I skip it
with =n SPC=.  I do this repeatedly for all tasks in the list and then
I'm done archiving until next month.

Archiving is easy.  When I find a candidate I can archive I just do =a
y SPC= to archive the current task and display the next candidate
task.  Then I'm back to =n SPC= if I'm skipping this next candidate
task or =a y SPC= to archive it.  Rinse and repeat.

I used to archive by visiting one file at a time and doing a tags
match for LEVEL=2 -- using the agenda does all of my files in
org-agenda-files much more efficiently.

** Archive Setup
Each of my level 1 tasks has a property which specifies where level 2
tasks under that heading should be archived.  This is done with the
=ARCHIVE= property as specified in the [[#OrgFileStructure][Org File Structure]].

The following setting ensures that task states are untouched when they
are archived.  This makes it possible to archive tasks that are not
marked DONE.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-archive-mark-done nil)

** Archive Tag - Hiding Information
The only time I set the ARCHIVE tag on a task is to prevent it from
opening by default because it has tons of information I don't really
need to look at on a regular basis.  I can open the task with C-TAB if
I need to see the gory details (like a huge table of data related to
the task) but normally I don't need that information displayed.
** When to Archive
Archiving monthly works well for me.  I keep completed tasks around
for a month or two before archiving them.  This keeps clocking
information for the last 30 to 60 days out of the archives.  This
keeps my files that contribute to the agenda fairly current (this
month, and last month, and anything that is unfinished).  I only
rarely visit tasks in the archive when I need to pull up ancient
history for something.

Archiving keeps my main working files clutter-free.  If I ever need
the detail for the archived tasks they are available in the
appropriate archive file.
* Publishing
:CUSTOM_ID: Publishing

I don't do a lot of publishing for other people but I do keep a set of
private client system documentation online.  Most of this
documentation is a collection of notes exported to HTML.

Almost everything at is generated by publishing
org-files.  The notable exception to that is the index page which is
currently automatically generated from a Python script based on the
HTML files that exist in the document directory.

It is supposed to be possible to generate index files from org-mode
but I've never spent the time to figure that out since I already have
a working index page in place.

Org-mode can export to a variety of publishing formats including (but not limited to)

  (plain text - but not the original org-mode file)
- LaTeX
- Docbook
  which enables getting to lots of other formats like ODF, XML, etc
  via LaTeX or Docbook
- iCal

I haven't begun the scratch the surface of what org-mode is capable of
doing.  My main use case for org-mode publishing is just to create
HTML documents for viewing online conveniently.  Someday I'll get time
to try out the other formats when I need them for something.

** org-babel Setup
Now I've discovered org-babel and how easy it is to generate decent
graphics using ditta and graphviz.

The setup is really easy.  =ditaa= is provided with the org-mode
source.  You'll have to install the =graphviz= package for your

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-ditaa-jar-path "~/java/ditaa0_6b.jar")
  (add-hook 'org-babel-after-execute-hook 'org-display-inline-images)
  (setq org-babel-load-languages (quote ((emacs-lisp . t)
                                         (dot . t)
                                         (ditaa . t)
                                         (R . t)
                                         (python . t)
                                         (ruby . t)
                                         (gnuplot . t)
                                         (clojure . t)
                                         (sh . t))))

 ; Do not prompt to confirm evaluation
 ; This may be dangerous - make sure you understand the consequences
 ; of setting this -- see the docstring for details
 (setq org-confirm-babel-evaluate nil)

Now you just create a =begin-src= block for the appropriate tool, edit
the text, and build the pictures with =C-c C-c=.  After evaluating the
block results are displayed.  You can toggle display of inline images
with =C-c C-x C-v=

** Playing with ditaa
   :CUSTOM_ID: playingwithditaa

[[][ditaa]] is a great tool for quickly generating graphics to convey ideas
and =ditaa= is included with org-mode!  All of the graphics in this
document are automatically generated by org-mode using plain text

Artist mode makes it easy to create boxes and lines for ditaa

The following graphic is one example of what you can do easily with


: #+begin_src ditaa :file communication.png :cmdline -r -s 0.8
:         +-----------+        +---------+  
:         |    PLC    |        |         |                
:         |  Network  +<------>+   PLC   +<---=---------+ 
:         |    cRED   |        |  c707   |              | 
:         +-----------+        +----+----+              | 
:                                   ^                   | 
:                                   |                   | 
:                                   |  +----------------|-----------------+
:                                   |  |                |                 |
:                                   v  v                v                 v
:           +----------+       +----+--+--+      +-------+---+      +-----+-----+       Windows clients
:           |          |       |          |      |           |      |           |      +----+      +----+
:           | Database +<----->+  Shared  +<---->+ Executive +<-=-->+ Operator  +<---->|cYEL| . . .|cYEL|
:           |   c707   |       |  Memory  |      |   c707    |      | Server    |      |    |      |    |
:           +--+----+--+       |{d} cGRE  |      +------+----+      |   c707    |      +----+      +----+
:              ^    ^          +----------+             ^           +-------+---+
:              |    |                                   |                        
:              |    +--------=--------------------------+                    
:              v                                                             
:     +--------+--------+                                                         
:     |                 |                                                         
:     | Millwide System |            -------- Data ---------                      
:     | cBLU            |            --=----- Signals ---=--                      
:     +-----------------+                                                         
: #+end_src

becomes this!

#+begin_src ditaa :file communication.png :cmdline -r -s 0.8
        +-----------+        +---------+  
        |    PLC    |        |         |                
        |  Network  +<------>+   PLC   +<---=---------+ 
        |    cRED   |        |  c707   |              | 
        +-----------+        +----+----+              | 
                                  ^                   | 
                                  |                   | 
                                  |  +----------------|-----------------+
                                  |  |                |                 |
                                  v  v                v                 v
          +----------+       +----+--+--+      +-------+---+      +-----+-----+       Windows clients
          |          |       |          |      |           |      |           |      +----+      +----+
          | Database +<----->+  Shared  +<---->+ Executive +<-=-->+ Operator  +<---->|cYEL| . . .|cYEL|
          |   c707   |       |  Memory  |      |   c707    |      | Server    |      |    |      |    |
          +--+----+--+       |{d} cGRE  |      +------+----+      |   c707    |      +----+      +----+
             ^    ^          +----------+             ^           +-------+---+
             |    |                                   |                        
             |    +--------=--------------------------+                    
    |                 |                                                         
    | Millwide System |            -------- Data ---------                      
    | cBLU            |            --=----- Signals ---=--                      


** Playing with graphviz
[[][Graphviz]] is another great tool for creating graphics in your documents.


: #+begin_src dot :file gv01.png :cmdline -Kdot -Tpng
: digraph G {
:   size="8,6"
:   ratio=expand
:   edge [dir=both]
:   plcnet [shape=box, label="PLC Network"]
:   subgraph cluster_wrapline {
:     label="Wrapline Control System"
:     color=purple
:     subgraph {
:     rank=same
:     exec
:     sharedmem [style=filled, fillcolor=lightgrey, shape=box]
:     }
:     edge[style=dotted, dir=none]
:     exec -> opserver
:     exec -> db
:     plc -> exec
:     edge [style=line, dir=both]
:     exec -> sharedmem
:     sharedmem -> db
:     plc -> sharedmem
:     sharedmem -> opserver
:   }
:   plcnet -> plc [constraint=false]
:   millwide [shape=box, label="Millwide System"]
:   db -> millwide
:   subgraph cluster_opclients {
:     color=blue
:     label="Operator Clients"
:     rankdir=LR
:     labelloc=b
:     node[label=client]
:     client1 -> client2 -> client3 [constraint=false]
:     opserver -> client1
:     opserver -> client2
:     opserver -> client3
:   }
: }
: #+end_src

becomes this!

#+begin_src dot :file gv01.png :cmdline -Kdot -Tpng
digraph G {
  edge [dir=both]
  plcnet [shape=box, label="PLC Network"]
  subgraph cluster_wrapline {
    label="Wrapline Control System"
    subgraph {
    sharedmem [style=filled, fillcolor=lightgrey, shape=box]
    edge[style=dotted, dir=none]
    exec -> opserver
    exec -> db
    plc -> exec
    edge [style=line, dir=both]
    exec -> sharedmem
    sharedmem -> db
    plc -> sharedmem
    sharedmem -> opserver
  plcnet -> plc [constraint=false]
  millwide [shape=box, label="Millwide System"]
  db -> millwide

  subgraph cluster_opclients {
    label="Operator Clients"
    client1 -> client2 -> client3 [constraint=false]
    opserver -> client1
    opserver -> client2
    opserver -> client3


The =-Kdot= is optional (defaults to =dot=) but you can substitute other graphviz
types instead here (ie. =twopi=, =neato=, =circo=, etc).

** Publishing Single Files
Org-mode exports the current file to one of the standard formats by
invoking an export function.  The standard key binding for this is
=C-c C-e= followed by the key for the type of export you want.

This works great for single files or parts of files -- if you narrow
the buffer to only part of the org-mode file then you only get the
narrowed detail in the export.

** Publishing Projects
:CUSTOM_ID: PublishingProjects

I mainly use publishing for publishing multiple files or projects.  I
don't want to remember where the created export file needs to move to
and org-mode projects are a great solution to this.

The [[]] website (and a bunch of other files that are
not publicly available) are all created by editing org-mode files and
publishing the project the file is contained in.  This is great for
people like me who want to figure out the details once and forget
about it.  I love stuff that Just Works(tm).

I have 3 main projects I use org-mode publishing for currently:

- norang (website)
- (website)
- org files (which are selectively included by other websites)

Here's my publishing setup:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
  ; experimenting with docbook exports - not finished
  (setq org-export-docbook-xsl-fo-proc-command "fop %s %s")
  (setq org-export-docbook-xslt-proc-command "xsltproc --output %s /usr/share/xml/docbook/stylesheet/nwalsh/fo/docbook.xsl %s")
  ; Inline images in HTML instead of producting links to the image
  (setq org-export-html-inline-images t)
  ; Do not use sub or superscripts - I currently don't need this functionality in my documents
  (setq org-export-with-sub-superscripts nil)
  ; Use org.css from the norang website for export document stylesheets
  (setq org-export-html-style-extra "<link rel=\"stylesheet\" href=\"\" type=\"text/css\" />")
  (setq org-export-html-style-include-default nil)
  ; Do not generate internal css formatting for HTML exports
  (setq org-export-htmlize-output-type (quote css))
  ; Export with LaTeX fragments
  (setq org-export-with-LaTeX-fragments t)
  ; List of projects
  ; norang -
  ; doc    -
  ; org    - miscellaneous todo lists for publishing
  (setq org-publish-project-alist
  ;  (norang website)
  ; norang-org are the org-files that generate the content
  ; norang-extra are images and css files that need to be included
  ; norang is the top-level project that gets published
        (quote (("norang-org"
                 :base-directory "~/git/"
                 :publishing-directory "/ssh:www-data@www:~/"
                 :recursive t
                 :section_numbers nil
                 :table-of-contents nil
                 :base-extension "org"
                 :publishing-function org-publish-org-to-html
                 :style-include-default nil
                 :section-numbers nil
                 :table-of-contents nil
                 :style-include-default nil
                 :style "<link rel=\"stylesheet\" href=\"norang.css\" type=\"text/css\">"
                 :author-info nil
                 :creator-info nil)
                 :base-directory "~/git/"
                 :publishing-directory "/ssh:www-data@www:~/"
                 :base-extension "css\\|pdf\\|png\\|jpg\\|gif"
                 :publishing-function org-publish-attachment
                 :recursive t
                 :author nil)
                 :components ("norang-org" "norang-extra"))
  ;  (norang website)
  ; doc-org are the org-files that generate the content
  ; doc-extra are images and css files that need to be included
  ; doc is the top-level project that gets published
                 :base-directory "~/git/"
                 :publishing-directory "/ssh:www-data@www:~/"
                 :recursive t
                 :section_numbers nil
                 :table-of-contents nil
                 :base-extension "org"
                 :publishing-function (org-publish-org-to-html org-publish-org-to-org)
                 :plain-source t
                 :htmlized-source t
                 :style-include-default nil
                 :style "<link rel=\"stylesheet\" href=\"/org.css\" type=\"text/css\">"
                 :author-info nil
                 :creator-info nil)
                 :base-directory "~/git/"
                 :publishing-directory "/ssh:www-data@www:~/"
                 :base-extension "css\\|pdf\\|png\\|jpg\\|gif"
                 :publishing-function org-publish-attachment
                 :recursive t
                 :author nil)
                 :components ("doc-org" "doc-extra"))
  ; Miscellaneous pages for other websites
  ; org are the org-files that generate the content
                 :base-directory "~/git/org/"
                 :publishing-directory "/ssh:www-data@www:~/org"
                 :recursive t
                 :section_numbers nil
                 :table-of-contents nil
                 :base-extension "org"
                 :publishing-function org-publish-org-to-html
                 :style-include-default nil
                 :style "<link rel=\"stylesheet\" href=\"/org.css\" type=\"text/css\">"
                 :author-info nil
                 :creator-info nil))))
  ; I'm lazy and don't want to remember the name of the project to publish when I modify
  ; a file that is part of a project.  So this function saves the file, and publishes
  ; the project that includes this file
  ; It's bound to C-S-F12 so I just edit and hit C-S-F12 when I'm done and move on to the next thing
  (defun bh/save-then-publish ()
  (global-set-key (kbd "C-s-<f12>") 'bh/save-then-publish)

The =norang= and =doc= projects publish directly into the webserver
directory that serves that site.  Publishing one of these projects
exports all modified pages, generates images with ditaa, copies the
resulting files to the webserver so that they are immediately
available for viewing.

The site contains subdirectories with client
documentation that are restricted access using Apache Basic
authentication and I don't create links to these sites from the
publicly viewable pages. would show
the index for any org files under =~/git/ if
that is set up as a viewable website.  I use most of the information
myself but give access to clients if they are interested in the
information/notes that I keep about their systems.

This works great for me - I know where my notes are and I can access
them from anywhere on the internet.  I'm also free to share notes with
other people by simply giving them the link to the appropriate site.

All I need to remember to do is edit the appropriate org file and
publish it with C-S-F12 -- not exactly hard :)

* Reminders
  :CUSTOM_ID: Reminders
  I use appt for reminders.  It's simple and unobtrusive -- putting
  pending appointments in the status bar and beeping as 12, 9, 6, 3,
  and 0 minutes before the appointment is due.

  Everytime the agenda is displayed (and that's lots for me) the
  appointment list is erased and rebuilt from the current agenda
  details for today.  This means everytime I reschedule something, add
  or remove tasks that are time related the appointment list is
  automatically updated the next time I look at the agenda.
** Reminder Setup
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ; Erase all reminders and rebuilt reminders for today from the agenda
  (defun bh/org-agenda-to-appt ()
    (setq appt-time-msg-list nil)
  ; Rebuild the reminders everytime the agenda is displayed
  (add-hook 'org-finalize-agenda-hook 'bh/org-agenda-to-appt)
  ; This is at the end of my .emacs - so appointments are set up when Emacs starts
  ; Activate appointments so we get notifications
  (appt-activate t)
  ; If we leave Emacs running overnight - reset the appointments one minute after midnight
  (run-at-time "24:01" nil 'bh/org-agenda-to-appt)
* Productivity Tools
:CUSTOM_ID: ProductivityTools
This section is a miscellaneous collection of Emacs customizations that I use
with org-mode so that it Works-For-Me(tm).
** Yasnippets
:CUSTOM_ID: Yasnippets
[[][Yasnippets]] is cool!  You type the snippet name and =TAB= and yasnippet
expands the name with the contents of the snippet text - substituting
snippet variables as appropriate.

Yasnippet comes with lots of snippets for programming languages.  So
far I only use 1 snippet (=block=) for =org-mode=.

I downloaded and installed the unbundled version of yasnippet so that
I can edit the predefined snippets.  I unpacked the yasnippet software
in my =~/.emacs.d/plugins= directory, renamed =yasnippet0.5.10= to
=yasnippet= and added the following setup in my =.emacs=:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "~/.emacs.d/plugins"))
  (require 'yasnippet)
  (yas/load-directory "~/.emacs.d/plugins/yasnippet/snippets")
  ;; Make TAB the yas trigger key in the org-mode-hook and enable flyspell mode and autofill
  (add-hook 'org-mode-hook
            (lambda ()
              ;; yasnippet
              (make-variable-buffer-local 'yas/trigger-key)
              (org-set-local 'yas/trigger-key [tab])
              (define-key yas/keymap [tab] 'yas/next-field-group)
              ;; flyspell mode for spell checking everywhere
              (flyspell-mode 1)
              ;; auto-fill mode on
              (auto-fill-mode 1)))

Here is the definition for the =block= snippet:

org-mode Yasnippet: ~/.emacs.d/plugins/yasnippet/snippets/text-mode/org-mode/block
  #name : #+begin_...#+end_
  # --
  #+begin_$1 $2

I use this to create =#+begin_*= blocks like 
- =#+begin_example=
- =#+begin_ditaa=
- =#+begin_dot=
- =#+begin_src=
- etc.

Simply type =block= then =TAB= and it replaces the =block= text with
the snippet contents.  Then type =src TAB emacs-lisp TAB= and your
snippet block is done.

Hit =C-c SingeQuote(')= and insert whatever emacs-lisp code you need.
While in this block you're in a mode that knows how to format and
colourize emacs lisp code as you enter it which is really nice.  =C-c
SingleQuote(')= exits back to org-mode.  This recognizes any emacs
editing mode so all you have to do is enter the appropriate mode name
for the block.

This is a great time saver.
** Limit your view to what you are working on
:CUSTOM_ID: LimitingAgendaView
There is more than one way to do this.  Use what works for you.
*** Narrowing to a subtree with =bh/org-todo=
=f5= and =S-f5= are bound the functions for narrowing and widening the emacs buffer as follows:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f5>") 'bh/org-todo)
  (defun bh/org-todo ()
    (org-show-todo-tree nil))
  (global-set-key (kbd "<S-f5>") 'bh/widen)
  (defun bh/widen ()

This makes it easy to hide all of the other details in your org-file
temporarily by limiting your view to this task subtree.  Tasks are
folded and hilighted so that only tasks which are incomplete are

I hit =f5= a lot.  This basically does a =org-narrow-to-subtree= and =C-c C-v= combination
leaving the buffer in a narrowed state.  I use =S-f5= to widen back to the normal view.
*** Limiting the agenda to a subtree
=C-c C-x <= turns on the agenda restriction lock for the current
subtree.  This keeps your agenda focused on only this subtree.  Alarms
and notifications are still active outside the agenda restriction.
=C-c C-x >= turns off the agenda restriction lock returning your
agenda view back to normal.

I don't normally use the agenda restriction lock.  I normally want to
see all =work= tasks which are in multiple files so agenda view
filtering works better for me.
*** Limiting the agenda to a file
You can limit the agenda view to a single file in multiple ways.

You can use the agenda restriction lock =C-c C-x <= on the any line
before the first heading to set the agenda restriction lock to this
file only.  This lock stays in effect until you remove it with =C-c
C-x >=.

Another way is to invoke the agenda with =F12 < a= while visiting an
org-mode file.  This limits the agenda view to just this file.  I
occassionally use this to view a file not in my =org-agenda-files= in
the agenda.

** Tuning the Agenda Views
Various customizations affect how the agenda views show task details.
This section shows each of the customizations I use in my workflow.
*** Highlight the current agenda line
The following code in my =.emacs= file keeps the current agenda line
highlighted.  This makes it obvious what task will be affected by
commands issued in the agenda.  No more acting on the wrong task by

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Always hilight the current agenda line
  (add-hook 'org-agenda-mode-hook '(lambda () (hl-line-mode 1)))

*** Remove tasks with dates from the global todo lists
Tasks with dates (=SCHEDULED:=, =DEADLINE:=, or active dates) show up
in the agenda when appropriate.  I use the following settings to
remove these tasks from the global todo lists when they are too far in
the future to be interesting now.  The idea here is the agenda has
date-related items and the global todo lists have everything else.
Keeping tasks on one list only prevents having to review tasks more
than once when browsing the lists.

Tasks with dates are scheduled into the future sometime and you don't
need to deal with them until the date approaches.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Keep tasks with dates off the global todo lists
  (setq org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date nil)
  ;; Allow deadlines which are due soon to appear on the global todo lists
  (setq org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines (quote far))
  ;; Keep tasks scheduled in the future off the global todo lists
  (setq org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled (quote future))
  ;; Remove completed deadline tasks from the agenda view
  (setq org-agenda-skip-deadline-if-done t)
  ;; Remove completed scheduled tasks from the agenda view
  (setq org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done t)
  ;; Remove completed items from search results
  (setq org-agenda-skip-timestamp-if-done t)

*** Use the Diary for Holidays only
I don't use the emacs Diary for anything but I like seeing the
holidays on my agenda.  This helps with planning for those days when
you're not supposed to be working.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-agenda-include-diary nil)
  (setq org-agenda-diary-file "~/git/org/")

I don't use a =~/diary= file anymore.  That is just there as a
zero-length file to keep Emacs happy.  I use org-mode's diary
functions instead.  Inserting entries with =i= in the emacs agenda
creates date entries in the =~/git/org/ file.

I include holidays from the calendar in my file as follows:
: * Appointments
:   :CATEGORY: Appt
:   :ARCHIVE:  %s_archive::* Appointments
:   :END:      
: ** Holidays
:    :Category: Holiday
:    :END:
: %%(org-calendar-holiday)
: ** Some other Appointment
:    ...

*** Searches include archive files
I keep a single archive file for each of my org-mode project files.
This allows me to search the current file and the archive when I need
to dig up old information from the archives.

I don't need this often but it sure is handy on the occasions that
I do need it.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Include agenda archive files when searching for things
  (setq org-agenda-text-search-extra-files (quote (agenda-archives)))
*** Agenda view tweaks
The following agenda customizations control 
- display of repeating tasks
- display of empty dates on the agenda
- task sort order
- start the agenda weekly view with =today=
- display of the grid
- habits at the bottom

I use a custom sorting function so that my daily agenda lists tasks in
order of importance.  Tasks on the daily agenda are listed in the
following order:

1. tasks with times at the top so they are hard to miss
2. tasks for today (not scheduled or deadline tasks)
3. late deadline tasks
4. deadlines due today
5. late scheduled items
6. scheduled items for today
7. pending deadlines (due soon)
8. habits

The lisp for this isn't particularly pretty but it works.

Here are the =.emacs= settings:
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ;; Show all future entries for repeating tasks
  (setq org-agenda-repeating-timestamp-show-all t)
  ;; Show all agenda dates - even if they are empty
  (setq org-agenda-show-all-dates t)
  ;; Sorting order for tasks on the agenda
  (setq org-agenda-sorting-strategy
        (quote ((agenda habit-down time-up user-defined-up priority-down effort-up category-keep)
                (todo priority-down)
                (tags priority-down))))
  ;; Start the weekly agenda today
  (setq org-agenda-start-on-weekday nil)
  ;; Disable display of the time grid
  (setq org-agenda-time-grid
        (quote (nil "----------------"
                    (800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000))))
  ;; Display tags farther right
  (setq org-agenda-tags-column -102)
  ;; Agenda sorting functions
  (setq org-agenda-cmp-user-defined 'bh/agenda-sort)
  (defun bh/agenda-sort (a b)
    "Sorting strategy for agenda items.
  Late deadlines first, then scheduled, then non-late deadlines"
    (let (result num-a num-b)
       ; time specific items are already sorted first by org-agenda-sorting-strategy
       ; non-deadline and non-scheduled items next
       ((bh/agenda-sort-test 'bh/is-not-scheduled-or-deadline a b))
       ; late deadlines next
       ((bh/agenda-sort-test-num 'bh/is-late-deadline '< a b))
       ; deadlines for today next
       ((bh/agenda-sort-test 'bh/is-due-deadline a b))
       ; late scheduled items next
       ((bh/agenda-sort-test-num 'bh/is-scheduled-late '> a b))
       ; scheduled items for today next
       ((bh/agenda-sort-test 'bh/is-scheduled-today a b))
       ; pending deadlines last
       ((bh/agenda-sort-test-num 'bh/is-pending-deadline '< a b))
       ; finally default to unsorted
       (t (setq result nil)))
  (defmacro bh/agenda-sort-test (fn a b)
    "Test for agenda sort"
      ; if both match leave them unsorted
      ((and (apply ,fn (list ,a))
            (apply ,fn (list ,b)))
       (setq result nil))
      ; if a matches put a first
      ((apply ,fn (list ,a))
       ; if b also matches leave unsorted
       (if (apply ,fn (list ,b))
           (setq result nil)
         (setq result -1)))
      ; otherwise if b matches put b first
      ((apply ,fn (list ,b))
       (setq result 1))
      ; if none match leave them unsorted
      (t nil)))
  (defmacro bh/agenda-sort-test-num (fn compfn a b)
      ((apply ,fn (list ,a))
       (setq num-a (string-to-number (match-string 1 ,a)))
       (if (apply ,fn (list ,b))
             (setq num-b (string-to-number (match-string 1 ,b)))
             (setq result (if (apply ,compfn (list num-a num-b))
         (setq result -1)))
      ((apply ,fn (list ,b))
       (setq result 1))
      (t nil)))
  (defun bh/is-not-scheduled-or-deadline (date-str)
    (and (not (bh/is-deadline date-str))
         (not (bh/is-scheduled date-str))))
  (defun bh/is-due-deadline (date-str)
    (string-match "Deadline:" date-str))
  (defun bh/is-late-deadline (date-str)
    (string-match "In *\\(-.*\\)d\.:" date-str))
  (defun bh/is-pending-deadline (date-str)
    (string-match "In \\([^-]*\\)d\.:" date-str))
  (defun bh/is-deadline (date-str)
    (or (bh/is-due-deadline date-str)
        (bh/is-late-deadline date-str)
        (bh/is-pending-deadline date-str)))
  (defun bh/is-scheduled (date-str)
    (or (bh/is-scheduled-today date-str)
        (bh/is-scheduled-late date-str)))
  (defun bh/is-scheduled-today (date-str)
    (string-match "Scheduled:" date-str))
  (defun bh/is-scheduled-late (date-str)
    (string-match "Sched\.\\(.*\\)x:" date-str))

** Checklist handling
:CUSTOM_ID: ChecklistHandling
Checklists are great for repeated tasks with lots of things that need
to be done.  For a long time I was manually resetting the check boxes
to unchecked when marking the repeated task =DONE= but no more!
There's a contributed =org-checklist= that can uncheck the boxes
automagically when the task is marked done.

Add the following to your =.emacs=
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (load "~/git/org-mode/contrib/lisp/org-checklist")

and then to use it in a task you simply set the property =RESET_CHECK_BOXES= to =t= 
like this

: ** TODO Invoicing and Archive Tasks [0/7]
:    DEADLINE: <2009-07-01 Wed +1m -0d> 
:    :END:
:    - [ ] Do task 1
:    - [ ] Do task 2
:    ...
:    - [ ] Do task 7

** Backups
=Backups that you have to work hard at don't get gone=.

I lost a bunch of data over 10 years ago due to not having a working
backup solution.  At the time I said =I'm not going to lose any
important data ever again=.  So far so good :)

My backups get done religiously.  What does this have to do with
org-mode?  Not much really, other than I don't spend time doing
backups -- they just happen -- which saves me time for other more
interesting things.

My backup philosophy is to make it possible to recover your data --
not necessarily easy.  It doesn't have to be easy/fast to do the
recovery because I'll rarely have to recover data from the backups.
Saving time for recovery doesn't make sense to me.  I want the backup
to be fast and painless since I do those all the time.

I set up an automated network backup over 10 years ago that is still
serving me well today.  All of my systems gets daily backups to a
network drive.  These are collected weekly and written to DVD ISO
images in case my machines walk off someday.

Once a week I get an email that says 'These ISO images are ready to be
burned to disk' and all I have to do is write them out.  Backups take
minimal effort currently and I'm really happy about that.

Since then =git= came into my life, so backups of =git= repositories
that are on multiple machines is much less critical than it used to
be.  There is an automatic backup of everything pushed to the remote

** Handling blocked tasks
:CUSTOM_ID: HandlingBlockedTasks
Blocked tasks are tasks that have subtasks which are not in a done
todo state.  Blocked tasks show up in a grayed font by default in the

To enable task blocking set the following variable:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-enforce-todo-dependencies t)

This setting prevents tasks from changing to =DONE= if any subtasks
are still open.  This works pretty well except for repeating tasks.  I
find I'm regularly adding =TODO= tasks under repeating tasks and not
all of the subtasks need to be complete before the next repeat cycle.

You can override the setting temporarily by changing the task with
=C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t= but I never remember that.  I set a permanent
property on the repeated tasks as follows:

: * TODO New Repeating Task
:   SCHEDULED: <2009-06-16 Tue +1w>
:   :END:
: ...
: ** TODO Subtask

This prevents the =New Repeating Task= from being blocked if some of
the items under it are not complete.

Occassionally I need to complete tasks in a given order.  Org-mode has
a property =ORDERED= that enforces this for subtasks.

: * TODO Some Task
:   :ORDERED: t
:   :END:
: ** TODO Step 1
: ** TODO Step 2
: ** TODO Step 3
In this case you need to complete =Step 1= before you can complete
=Step 2=, etc. and org-mode prevents the state change to a done task
until the preceding tasks are complete.

** Org Task structure and presentation
This section describes various org-mode settings I use to control how
tasks are displayed while I work on my org mode files.
*** Controlling display of leading stars on headlines
Org-mode has the ability to show or hide the leading starts on task
headlines.  It's also possible to have headlines at odd levels only so
that the stars and heading task names line up in sublevels.

I don't hide leading stars - I want to see the heading levels
explicitly.  When I tried the hide leading stars setting I found
myself typing ' *' when adding a new heading and then the font lock
shows I messed up and created a list instead.

To make org show leading stars use

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes 
  (setq org-hide-leading-stars nil)
*** Show headings at odd levels only or odd-even levels
I've converted my files between odd-levels-only and odd-even using the
functions =org-convert-to-odd-levels= and
=org-convert-to-oddeven-levels= functions a number of times.  I ended
up going back to odd-even levels to reduce the amount of leading
whitespace on tasks.  I didn't find that lining up the headlines and
tasks in odd-levels-only to be all that helpful.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-odd-levels-only nil)
*** Handling blank lines
Blank lines are evil :).  They keep getting inserted in between
headlines and I never want to see them in collapsed (contents) views.
When I use =TAB= to fold (cycle) tasks I don't want to see any blank

The following setting hides all blank lines inside folded contents of
a tasks:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-cycle-separator-lines 0)

I find extra blank lines in lists and headings a bit of a nuisance.
To get a body after a list you need to include a blank line between
the list entry and the body -- and indent the body appropriately.
Most of my lists have no body detail so I like the look of collapsed
lists with no blank lines better.

The following setting prevents creating blank lines before list items
and headings:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-blank-before-new-entry (quote ((heading)
*** Adding new tasks quickly without disturbing the current task content
To create new headings in a project file it is really convenient to
use C-S-RET.  This inserts a new headline.  With the following setting

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-insert-heading-respect-content t)

Org adds the new heading after the content of the current item.  This
lets you hit C-S-RET in the middle of an entry and the new heading is
added after the body of the current entry.

*** Notes at the top
I enter notes for tasks with =C-c C-z= (or just =z= in the agenda).
Changing tasks states also sometimes prompt for a note (e.g. moving to
=WAITING= prompts for a note and I enter a reason for why it is
waiting).  These notes are saved at the top of the task so unfolding
the task shows the note first.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-reverse-note-order nil)
*** Searching and showing results
Org-mode's searching capabilities are really effective at finding data
in your org files.  =C-c / /= does a regular expression search on the
current file and shows matching results in a collapsed view of the

I have org-mode show the hierarchy of tasks above the matched entries
and also the immediately following sibling task (but not all siblings)
with the following settings:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-show-following-heading t)
  (setq org-show-hierarchy-above t)
  (setq org-show-siblings nil)

This keeps the results of the search relatively compact and mitigates
accidental errors by cutting too much data from your org file with
=C-k=.  Cutting folded data (including the ...) can be really
dangerous since it cuts text (including following subtrees) which you
can't see.  For this reason I always show the following headline when
displaying search results.
*** Editing and Special key handling
Org-mode allows special handling of the C-a, C-e, and C-k keys while
editing headlines.  I also use the setting that pastes (yanks)
subtrees and adjusts the levels to match the task I am pasting to.
See the docstring (=C-h v org-yank-adjust-subtrees=) for more details
on each variable and what it does.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-special-ctrl-a/e t)
  (setq org-special-ctrl-k t)
  (setq org-yank-adjusted-subtrees t)

** Attachments					
Attachments are great for getting large amounts of data related to
your project out of your org-mode files.  Before attachments came
along I was including huge blocks of SQL code in my org files to keep
track of changes I made to project databases.  This bloated my org
file sizes badly.

Now I can create the data in a separate file and attach it to my
project task so it's easily located again in the future.

I set up org-mode to generate unique attachment IDs with
=org-id-method= as follows:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-id-method (quote uuidgen))

Say you want to attach a file =x.sql= to your current task.  Create
the file data in =/tmp/x.sql= and save it.

Attach the file with =C-c C-a a= and enter the filename: =x.sql=.
This generates a unique ID for the task and adds the file in the
attachment directory.

: ** Attachments		                                   :ATTACH:
:    :Attachments: x.sql
:    :ID:       f1d38e9a-ff70-4cc4-ab50-e8b58b2aaa7b
:    :END:

The attached file is saved in
=data/f1/d38e9a-ff70-4cc4-ab50-e8b58b2aaa7b/=.  Where it goes exactly
isn't important for me -- as long as it is saved and retrievable
easily.  Org-mode copies the original file =/tmp/x.sql= into the
appropriate attachment directory.

Tasks with attachments automatically get an =ATTACH= tag so you can
easily find tasks with attachments with a tag search.
To open the attachment for a task use =C-c C-a o=.  This prompts for
the attachment to open and =TAB= completion works here.

The =ID= changes for every task header when a new =ID= is generated.
It's possible to use named directories for attachments but I haven't
needed this functionality yet -- it's there if you need it.

I store my org-mode attachments with my org files in a subdirectory
=data=.  These are automatically added to my =git= repository along
with any other org-mode changes I've made.

** Deadlines and Agenda Visibility

Deadlines and due dates are a fact or life.  By default I want to see
deadlines in the agenda 30 days before the due date.

The following setting accomplishes this:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-deadline-warning-days 30)

This gives me plenty of time to deal with the task so that it is
completed on or before the due date.

I also use deadlines for repeating tasks.  If the task repeats more
often than once per month it would be always bugging me on the agenda
view.  For these types of tasks I set an explicit deadline warning
date as follows:

: ** TODO Pay Wages
:    DEADLINE: <2009-07-01 Wed +1m -0d> 

This example repeats monthly and shows up in the agenda on the day it
is due (with no prior warning).  You can set any number of lead days
you want on DEADLINES using -Nd where N is the number of days in
advance the task should show up in the agenda.  If no value is
specified the default =org-deadline-warning-days= is used.

** Exporting Tables to CSV
I generate org-mode tables with details of task specifications and
record structures for some of my projects.  My clients like to use
spreadsheets for this type of detail.

It's easy to share the details of the org-mode table by exporting in
HTML but that isn't easy for anyone else to work with if they need to
edit data.

To solve this problem I export my table as comma delimited values
(CSV) and then send that to the client (or read it into a spreadsheet
and email the resulting spreadsheet file).

Org-mode can export tables as TAB or comma delimited formats.  I set
the default format to CSV with:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-table-export-default-format "orgtbl-to-csv")

Exporting to CSV format is the only one I use and this provides the
default so I can just hit RETURN when prompted for the format.

To export the following table I put the cursor inside the table and
hit =M-x org-table-export= which prompts for a filename and the format
which defaults to orgtbl-to-csv from the setting above.

|   One |    Two | Three |
|     1 |      1 |     2 |
|     3 |      6 |     5 |
|  fred |    kpe |  mary |
| 234.5 | 432.12 | 324.3 |

This creates the file with the following data

#+begin_src csv

** Visiting links

Links to emails, web pages, and other files are sprinkled all over my
org files.  The following setting control how org-mode handles opening
the link.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-link-frame-setup ((vm . vm-visit-folder)
                              (gnus . org-gnus-no-new-news)
                              (file . find-file-other-window)))

I like to keep links in the same window so that I don't end up with a
ton of frames in my window manager.  I normally work in a full-screen
window and having links open in the same window just works better for
** Logging stuff
Most of my logging is controlled by the global =org-todo-keywords=

My logging settings are set as follows:
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-log-done (quote time))
  (setq org-log-into-drawer t)

With =org-todo-keywords= set as 

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-todo-keywords
        (quote ((sequence "TODO(t)" "NEXT(n)" "WAITING(w@/!)" "SOMEDAY(s!)" "|" "DONE(d!/!)" "CANCELLED(c@/!)")
                (sequence "QUOTE(Q!)" "QUOTED(D!)" "|" "APPROVED(A@)" "EXPIRED(E@)" "REJECTED(R@)")
                (sequence "OPEN(O)" "|" "CLOSED(C)"))))

This adds a log entry whenever a task moves to any of the following states:
- to or out of =DONE= status
- to =WAITING= status (with a note) or out of =WAITING= status
- to =SOMEDAY= status
- to =CANCELLED= status (with a note) or out of =CANCELLED= status
- to =QUOTE= status
- to =QUOTED= status
- to =APPROVED= status (with a note)
- to =EXPIRED= status (with a note)
- to =REJECTED= status (with a note)

I keep clock times and states in the =LOGBOOK= drawer to keep my tasks
uncluttered.  If a task is WAITING then the reason for why it is
waiting is near the top of the LOGBOOK and unfolding the LOGBOOK
drawer provides that information.
** Limiting time spent on tasks
:CUSTOM_ID: LimitingTimeSpentOnTasks
Org-mode has this great new feature for signalling alarms when the
estimated time for a task is reached.  I use this to limit the amount
of time I spend on a task during the day.

As an example, I've been working on this document for over two months
now.  I want to get it finished but I can't just work on it solely
until it's done because then nothing else gets done.  I want to do a
little bit every day but limit the total amount of time I spend
documenting org-mode to an hour a day.

To this end I have a task

: ** NEXT Document my use of org-mode
:    :LOGBOOK:...
:    :Effort:   1:00
:    :END:

The task has an estimated effort of 1 hour and when I clock in the
task it gives me a total in the mode-line like this

: --:**   91% (2348,73) Git:master  (Org Fly yas Font)-----[0:35/1:00 (Document my use of org-mode)]-------

I've spent 35 minutes of my 1 hour so far today on this document and
other help on IRC.

I set up an alarm so the Star Trek red alert klaxon goes off when the
total estimated time is hit.  (Yes I'm a Trekkie :) )

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-clock-sound "/usr/local/lib/alert1.wav")

When the one hour time limit is hit the alarm sound goes off and a
message states that I should be done working on this task.  If I
switch tasks and try to clock in this task again I get the sound each
and every time I clock in the task.  This nags me to go work on
something else :)

You can use similar setups for repeated tasks.  By default the last
repeat time is recorded as a property when a repeating task is marked
done.  For repeating tasks the mode-line clock total counts since the
last repeat time by default.  This lets you accumulate time over
multiple days and counts towards your estimated effort limit.
** Habit Tracking
John Wiegley recently added support for Habit tracking to org-mode.

I have lots of habits (some bad) but I'd still like to improve and
build new good habits.  This is what habit tracking is for.  It shows
a graph on the agenda of how well you have been doing on developing
your habits.

I have habits like:

- Hand wash the dishes
- 30 minute brisk walk
- Clean the house

etc. and most of these need a push to get done regularly.  Logging of
the done state needs to be enabled for habit tracking to work.

A habit is just like a regular task except it has a special =PROPERTY=
value setting and a special =SCHEDULED= date entry like this:

: ** TODO Update Org Mode Doc
:    SCHEDULED: <2009-11-21 Sat .+7d/30d>
:    [2009-11-14 Sat 11:45]
:    :STYLE: habit
:    :END:

This marks the task as a habit and separates it from the regular task
display on the agenda.  When you mark a habit done it shows up on your
daily agenda the next time based on the first interval in the
SCHEDULED entry (=.+1d=)

The special =SCHEDULED= entry states that I want to do this every day
but at least every 2 days.  If I go 3 days without marking it DONE it
shows up RED on the agenda indicating that I have been neglecting this

The world isn't going to end if you neglect your habits.  You can hide
and display habits quickly using the =K= key on the agenda.

These are my settings for habit tracking.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  ; Enable habit tracking (and a bunch of other modules)
  (setq org-modules (quote (org-bbdb org-bibtex org-crypt org-gnus org-id org-info org-jsinfo org-habit org-inlinetask org-irc org-mew org-mhe org-protocol org-rmail org-vm org-wl org-w3m)))
  ; global STYLE property values for completion
  (setq org-global-properties (quote (("STYLE_ALL" . "habit"))))
  ; position the habit graph on the agenda to the right of the default
  (setq org-habit-graph-column 50)

During the day I'll turn off the habit display in the agenda with =K=.
This is a persistent setting and since I leave my Emacs running for
days at a time my habit display doesn't come back.  To make sure I
look at the habits daily I have the following settings to redisplay
the habits in the agenda each day.  This turns the habit display on
again at 6AM each morning.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (run-at-time "06:00" 86400 '(lambda () (setq org-habit-show-habits t)))

** Habits only log DONE state changes
I tend to keep habits under a level 1 task =* Habits= with a special
logging property that only logs changes to the =DONE= state.  This
allows me to cancel a habit and not record a timestamp for it since
that messes up the habit graph.  Cancelling a habit just to get it off
my agenda because it's undoable (like get up before 6AM) should not
mark the habit as done today.  I only cancel habits that repeat every

My habit tasks look as follows - and I tend to have one in every org
file that can have habits defined
: * Habits
:   :LOGGING:  DONE(!)
:   :ARCHIVE:  %s_archive::* Habits
:   :END:
** Auto revert mode
I use git to synchronize my org-mode files between my laptop and my
workstation.  This normally requires saving all the current changes,
pushing to a bare repo, and fetching on the other system.  After that
I need to revert all of my org-mode files to get the updated

I used to use =org-revert-all-org-buffers= but have since discovered
=global-auto-revert-mode=.  With this setting any files that change on
disk where there are no changes in the buffer automatically revert to
the on-disk version.

This is perfect for synchronizing my org-mode files between systems.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq global-auto-revert-mode t)

** Handling Encryption
:CUSTOM_ID: HandlingEncryption
I used to keep my encrypted data like account passwords in a separate
GPG encrypted file.  Now I keep them in my org-mode files with a
special tag instead.  Encrypted data is kept in the org-mode file that
it is associated with.
=org-crypt= allows you to tag headings with a special tag =crypt= and
org-mode can keep data in these headings encrypted when saved to disk.
You decrypt the heading temporarily when you need access to the data
and org-mode re-encrypts the heading as soon as you save the file.

I use the following setup for encryption:
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (require 'org-crypt)
  ; Encrypt all entries before saving
  (setq org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance (quote ("crypt")))
  ; GPG key to use for encryption
  (setq org-crypt-key "F0B66B40")

=M-x org-decrypt-entry= will prompt for the passphrase associated with
your encryption key and replace the encrypted data where the point is
with the plaintext details for your encrypted entry.  As soon as you
save the file the data is re-encrypted for your key.  Encrypting does
not require prompting for the passphrase - that's only for looking at
the plain text version of the data.

I tend to have a single encrypted entry per file (like =* Passwords=).
I prevent the =crypt= tag from using inheritance so that I don't have
encrypted data inside encrypted data.  I found =M-x
org-decrypt-entries= prompting for the passphrase to decrypt data over
and over again (once per entry to decrypt) too inconvenient.

I leave my entries encrypted unless I have to look up data - I decrypt
on demand and then save the file again to re-encrypt the data.  This
keeps the data in plain text as short as possible.

** Speed Commands
There's a new and exciting feature called =org-speed-commands= in the
latest development version of org-mode.

Speed commands allow access to frequently used commands when on the
beginning of a headline - similar to one-key agenda commands.  Speed
commands are user configurable and org-mode provides a good set of
default commands.

I have the following speed commands set up in addition to the
defaults.  I don't use priorities so I override the default settings
for the 1, 2, and 3 keys.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-use-speed-commands t)
  (setq org-speed-commands-user (quote (("0" . delete-window)
                                        ("1" . delete-other-windows)
                                        ("2" . split-window-vertically)
                                        ("3" . split-window-horizontally)
                                        ("h" . hide-other)
                                        ("k" . org-kill-note-or-show-branches)
                                        ("r" . org-reveal)
                                        ("s" . org-save-all-org-buffers)
                                        ("z" . org-add-note))))

The variable =org-speed-commands-default= sets a lot of useful
defaults for speed command keys.  The default keys I use the most are
=I= and =O= for clocking in and out and =t= to change todo state.
** Org Protocol
[[][Org protocol]] is a great way to create capture notes in org-mode from
other applications.  I use this to create tasks to review interesting
web pages I visit in Firefox.

I have a special capture template set up for org-protocol to use (set
up with the =w= key).

My org-mode setup for org-protocol is really simple.  It enables
org-protocol and creates a single org-protocol capture template as
described in [[id:9507648b-dbfc-4ba1-96c2-36e8ba15cbd0][Capture Templates]].
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (require 'org-protocol)
The bulk of the setup is in the Firefox application so that C-M-r on a
page in Firefox will trigger the org-protocol capture template with
details of the page I'm currently viewing in firefox.

I set up org-protocol in firefox as described in [[][Keybindings for Firefox]].
** Add final newline when saving files
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq require-final-newline t)
** Insert inactive timestamps
I insert inactive timestamps when working on org-mode files.  Normally
I use this to track when a task was created.

For capture tasks the timestamp is in the capture template but for
regular structure editing I normally want a clean outline without
timestamps.  I find this easier to work with when brainstorming and
generating the outline structure for a project.  For this reason I've
turned off the hook I used to use to automatically insert a timestamp
when creating headlines.

I have the following function bound to the key sequence =f9 t= to
insert an inactive timestamp in the text on demand.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (defun bh/insert-inactive-timestamp ()
    (org-insert-time-stamp nil t t nil nil nil))
  (global-set-key (kbd "<f9> t") 'bh/insert-inactive-timestamp)

** Return follows links
The following setting make =RET= open links instead of inserting a new
line.  This setting is a love-hate relationship for me.  When it first
came out I immediately turned it off because I wanted to insert new
lines in front of my links and =RET= would open the link instead which
at the time I found extremely annoying.  Now I've trained my fingers
to do =C-o= instead for opening the line above the link.  I find I'm
hitting =RET= to visit links a lot more than opening lines before the
link - so retraining my fingers was the right move for me.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-return-follows-link t)

** Highlight clock when running overtime
The current clocking task is displayed on the modeline.  If this has
an estimated time and we run over the limit I make this stand out on
the modeline by changing the background to red as follows

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
    ;; custom-set-faces was added by Custom.
    ;; If you edit it by hand, you could mess it up, so be careful.
    ;; Your init file should contain only one such instance.
    ;; If there is more than one, they won't work right.
   '(org-mode-line-clock ((t (:background "grey75" :foreground "red" :box (:line-width -1 :style released-button)))) t))

** Meeting Notes
I take meeting notes with org-mode.  I record meeting conversations in
point-form using org-mode lists.  If action items are decided on in
the meeting I'll denote them with a bullet and a TODO: or DONE: flag.

A meeting is a task and it is complete when the meeting is over.  The
body of the task records all of the interesting meeting details.  If
TODO items are created in the meeting I make separate TODO tasks from

I use the function =bh/prepare-meeting-notes= to prepare the meeting
notes for emailing to the participants (in a fixed-width font like
"Courier New").  As soon as the meeting is over the notes are
basically ready for distribution -- there's not need to waste lots of
time rewriting the minutes before they go out.  I haven't bothered
with fancy HTML output -- the content is more important than the

: ** TODO Sample Meeting
:    - Attendees
:      - [ ] Joe
:      - [X] Larry
:      - [X] Mary
:      - [X] Fred
:    - Joe is on vacation this week
:    - Status Updates
:      + Larry
:        - did this
:        - and that
:        - TODO: Needs to follow up on this
:      + Mary
:        - got a promotion for her recent efforts
:      + Fred
:        - completed all his tasks 2 days early
:        - needs more work
:        - DONE: everything

: ** TODO Sample Meeting
:    - Attendees
:      - [ ] Joe
:      - [X] Larry
:      - [X] Mary
:      - [X] Fred
:    - Joe is on vacation this week
:    - Status Updates
:      + Larry
:        - did this
:        - and that
: >>>>>>>> TODO: Needs to follow up on this
:      + Mary
:        - got a promotion for her recent efforts
:      + Fred
:        - completed all his tasks 2 days early
:        - needs more work
: >>>>>>>> DONE: everything

Here is the formatting function.  Just highlight the region for the
notes and it turns tabs into spaces, and highlights todo items.  The
resulting notes are in the kill buffer ready to paste to another

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (defun bh/prepare-meeting-notes ()
    "Prepare meeting notes for email
     Take selected region and convert tabs to spaces, mark TODOs with leading >>>, and copy to kill ring for pasting"
    (let (prefix)
          (narrow-to-region (region-beginning) (region-end))
          (untabify (point-min) (point-max))
          (goto-char (point-min))
          (while (re-search-forward "^\\( *-\\\) \\(TODO\\|DONE\\): " (point-max) t)
            (replace-match (concat (make-string (length (match-string 1)) ?>) " " (match-string 2) ": ")))
          (goto-char (point-min))
          (kill-ring-save (point-min) (point-max))))))

** Highlights persist after changes
I'm finding I use org-occur =C-c / /= a lot when trying to find
details in my org-files.  The following setting keeps the highlighted
results of the search even after modifying the text.  This allows me
to edit the file without having to reissue the org-occur command to
find the other matches in my file.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-remove-highlights-with-change nil)

** Getting up to date org-mode info documentation
:CUSTOM_ID: InfoDocumentation
I use the org-mode info documentation from the git repository so I set
up emacs to find the info files from git before the regular (out of
date) system versions.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (add-to-list 'Info-default-directory-list "~/git/org-mode/doc")

** Turn off prefer future dates
By default org-mode prefers dates in the future.  This means that if
today's date is May 2 and you enter a date for April 30th (2 days ago)
org-mode will jump to April 30th of next year.  I find this annoying
when I want to look at what happened last Friday since I have to
specify the year.

To make org-mode prefer the current year when entering dates I set
the following variable:
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-read-date-prefer-future nil)
** Automatically change list bullets
I take point-form notes during meetings.  Having the same list bullet
for every list level makes it hard to read the details when lists are
indented more than 3 levels.

Org-mode has a way to automatically change the list bullets when you
change list levels.

| Current List Bullet | Next indented list bullet |
| +                   | -                         |
| *                   | -                         |
| 1.                  | -                         |
| 1)                  | -                         |

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-list-demote-modify-bullet (quote (("+" . "-")
                                              ("*" . "-")
                                              ("1." . "-")
                                              ("1)" . "-"))))
* Things I Don't Use
This is a partial list of things I know about but do not use.
=org-mode= is huge with tons of features.  There are features out
there that I don't know about yet or haven't explored so this list is
not going to be complete.
** Task Priorities
I use the agenda to figure out what to do work on next.  I don't use
priorities at all.  I've played with them in the past and always go
back to using no priorities.

I disable the priority setting keys in org-mode using
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-enable-priority-commands nil)

** Archive Sibling
This was a cute idea but I find archiving entire complete subtrees
better.  I don't mind having a bunch of tasks marked =DONE= (but not
** Cycling plain lists
Org mode can fold (cycle) plain lists.  I don't use this feature.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-cycle-include-plain-lists nil)

** Strike-through emphasis
Strike-through emphasis is just unreadable and tends to only show up
when pasting data from other files into org-mode.  This just removes
the strike-through completely which I find a lot nicer.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (setq org-emphasis-alist (quote (("*" bold "<b>" "</b>")
                                   ("/" italic "<i>" "</i>")
                                   ("_" underline "<span style=\"text-decoration:underline;\">" "</span>")
                                   ("=" org-code "<code>" "</code>" verbatim)
                                   ("~" org-verbatim "<code>" "</code>" verbatim))))

* Using Git for Automatic History, Backups, and Synchronization
Editing folded regions of your org-mode file can be hazardous to your
data.  My method for dealing with this is to put my org files in a
=Git= source repository.
My setup saves all of my org-files every hour and creates a commit
with my changes automatically.  This lets me go back in time and view
the state of my org files for any given hour over the lifetime of the
document.  I've used this once or twice to recover data I accidentally
removed while editing folded regions.

** Automatic Hourly Commits

My Emacs setup saves all org buffers at 1 minute before the hour using
the following code in my =.emacs=

#+begin_src emacs-lisp :tangle yes
  (run-at-time "00:59" 3600 'org-save-all-org-buffers)

A =cron= job runs at the top of the hour to commit any changes just
saved by the call to =org-save-all-org-buffers= above.  I use a script
to create the commits so that I can run it on demand to easily commit
all modified work when moving from one machine to another.

=crontab= details:
  0 * * * * ~/bin/ >/dev/null

*** ~/bin/
Here is the shell script I use to create a =git= commit for each of my
org-repositories.  This loops through multiple repositories and
commits any modified files.  I have the following org-mode

- org 

  for all of my organization project files and todo lists


  for any changes to documents under


  for any changes to my other website

This script does not create empty commits - =git= only creates a commit
if something was modified.
#+begin_src sh
  # Add org file changes to the repository

  for REPO in $REPOS
      echo "Repository: $REPO"
      cd ~/git/$REPO
      # Remove deleted files
      git ls-files --deleted -z | xargs -0 git rm >/dev/null 2>&1
      # Add new files
      git add . >/dev/null 2>&1
      git commit -m "$(date)"

I use the following =.gitignore= file in my org-mode =git=
repositories to keep export generated files out of my =git=
repositories.  If I include a graphic from some other source than
ditaa or graphviz then I'll add it to the repository manually.  By
default all PNG graphic files are ignored (since I assume they are
produced by ditaa during export)
** Git - Edit files with confidence
I use =git= in all of my directories where editing a file should be

This means I can edit files with confidence.  I'm free to change stuff
and break things because it won't matter.  It's easy to go back to a
previous working version or to see exactly what changed since the last
commit.  This is great when editing configuration files (such as
apache webserver, bind9 DNS configurations, etc.)

I find this extremely useful where your edits might break things and
having =git= tracking the changes means if you break it you can just
go back to the previous working version easily.  This is also true for
package upgrades for software where the upgrade modifies the
configuration files.

I have every version of my edits in a local =git= repository.

** Git Repository synchronization
:CUSTOM_ID: git-sync
I acquired a Eee PC 1000 HE which now serves as my main road-warrior
laptop replacing my 6 year old Toshiba Tecra S1.

I have a server on my LAN that hosts bare git repositories for all of
my projects.  The problem I was facing is I have to leave in 5 minutes
and want to make sure I have up-to-date copies of everything I work on
when I take it on the road (without Internet access).

To solve this I use a server with bare git repositories on it.  This
includes my org-mode repositories as well as any other git
repositories I'm interested in.
Just before I leave I run the =git-sync= script on my workstation to
update the bare git repositories and then I run it again on my Eee PC
to update all my local repositories on the laptop.  For any
repositories that give errors due to non-fast-forward merges I
manually merge as required and rerun =git-sync= until it reports no
errors.  This normally takes a minute to two to do.  Then I grab my
Eee PC and leave.  When I'm on the road I have full up-to-date history
of all my git repositories.

The =git-sync= script replaces my previous scripts with an all-in-one
tool that basically does this:

- for each repository on the current system
  - fetch objects from the remote
  - for each branch that tracks a remote branch
    - Check if the ref can be moved
      - fast-forwards if behind the remote repository and is fast-forwardable
      - Does nothing if ref is up to date
      - Pushes ref to remote repository if ref is ahead of remote repository and fast-forwardable
      - Fails if ref and remote have diverged

This automatically advances changes on my 35+ git repositories with
minimal manual intervention.  The only time I need to manually do
something in a repository is when I make changes on my Eee PC and my
workstation at the same time - so that a merge is required.

Here is the =git-sync= script
#+begin_src sh
  # Local bare repository name
  # Display repository name only once
  log_repo() {
    [ "x$lastrepo" == "x$repo" ] || {
      printf "\nREPO: ${repo}\n"
  # Log a message for a repository
  log_msg() {
    printf "  $1\n"
  # fast-forward reference $1 to $syncrepo/$1
  fast_forward_ref() {
    log_msg "fast-forwarding ref $1"
    current_ref=$(cat .git/HEAD)
    if [ "x$current_ref" = "xref: refs/heads/$1" ]
      # Check for dirty index
      files=$(git diff-index --name-only HEAD --)
      git merge refs/remotes/$syncrepo/$1
      git branch -f $1 refs/remotes/$syncrepo/$1
  # Push reference $1 to $syncrepo
  push_ref() {
    log_msg "Pushing ref $1"
    if ! git push --tags $syncrepo $1
      exit 1
  # Check if a ref can be moved
  #   - fast-forwards if behind the sync repo and is fast-forwardable
  #   - Does nothing if ref is up to date
  #   - Pushes ref to $syncrepo if ref is ahead of syncrepo and fastforwardable
  #   - Fails if ref and $syncrop/ref have diverged
  check_ref() {
    revlist1=$(git rev-list refs/remotes/$syncrepo/$1..$1)
    revlist2=$(git rev-list $1..refs/remotes/$syncrepo/$1)
    if [ "x$revlist1" = "x" -a "x$revlist2" = "x" ]
      # Ref $1 is up to date.
    elif [ "x$revlist1" = "x" ]
      # Ref $1 is behind $syncrepo/$1 and can be fast-forwarded.
      fast_forward_ref $1 || exit 1
    elif [ "x$revlist2" = "x" ]
      # Ref $1 is ahead of $syncrepo/$1 and can be pushed.
      push_ref $1 || exit 1
      log_msg "Ref $1 and $syncrepo/$1 have diverged."
      exit 1
  # Check all local refs with matching refs in the $syncrepo
  check_refs () {
    git for-each-ref refs/heads/* | while read sha1 commit ref
      git for-each-ref refs/remotes/$syncrepo/$ref | while read sha2 commit ref2
        if [ "x$sha2" != "x" -a "x$sha2" != "x" ]
          check_ref $ref || exit 1
  # For all repositories under $reporoot
  #   Check all refs matching $syncrepo and fast-forward, or push as necessary
  #   to synchronize the ref with $syncrepo
  #   Bail out if ref is not fastforwardable so user can fix and rerun
  time {
    if find $reporoot -type d -name '*.git' | { 
        while read repo
          cd ${repo}
          upd=$(git remote update $syncrepo 2>&1 || retval=1)
          [ "x$upd" = "xFetching $syncrepo" ] || {
            printf "$upd\n"
          check_refs || retval=1
        exit $retval
      printf "\nAll done.\n"
      printf "\nFix and redo.\n"
  exit $retval

* Change History - What's new
This document is created using the publishing features of
#+begin_src emacs-lisp :results output :exports results

: Org-mode version 7.01trans (release_7.01h.356.gcbc81)


#+begin_src emacs-lisp :results output :exports results

: GNU Emacs 23.2.1 (i486-pc-linux-gnu, GTK+ Version 2.20.0)
:  of 2010-08-14 on raven, modified by Debian

The source for this document can be found as [[][colorized HTML]] and
[[][plain text org file]].

I try to update this document about once a month.

The change history for this document can be found at